Month: October 2017

The Effects of Sea Ice Loss On Harp Seals

This paper explores how the declining rate of sea ice affects the harp seal. Prior to researching, harp seal population was anticipated to diminish due to habitat loss from warming ocean temperatures. It will start by discussing the sea ice projections for the next 50 years and how much it is predicted to decrease.

Persistent Organic Pollutants

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are an environmental and health threat to oceanic and land creatures as well as humans. They are man-made substances that are primarily carried through air and water currents. POPs settle in colder climates in the Arctic, such as Alaska where the temperatures reach below freezing. The contaminants rest there for long periods of time because the cold climate prevents them from breaking down. This is the main reason why POPs transfer from water to soil to plants onto animals and into humans.

Coevolution and the Effects of Climate Change on Interacting Species

Recent studies suggest that environmental changes may tip the balance between interacting species, leading to the extinction of one or more species. While it is recognized that evolution will play a role in determining how environmental changes directly affect species, the interactions among species force us to consider the coevolutionary responses of species to environmental changes.

Climate Change

Climate change is a long-term significant change in the weather patters of a geographical area, or in the case, the world’s oceans. Climate change can be natural or caused by changes people have made to the land or atmosphere. It has become perhaps the most complicated issue facing world leaders.

Understanding Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells’ Proliferation

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumor. Patients with GBM have a median survival of 15 months. Thus, treating GBM can be achieved by inhibiting the proliferation of the patient-derived cells using leaf extract of B. monnieri.

Clarifying the Mechanism of Superantigen Toxicity

Superantigens are bacterial proteins that generate a powerful immune response by binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T cell receptors on T cells. A recent article reveals that at least one of the superantigens, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), also binds the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, suggesting that a much larger and potentially more stable complex is formed at the immunological synapse than was previously thought.

Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

The pancreas is the origin of some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Understanding the signalling pathways and gene regulatory networks underlying pancreas development will shed light in the origins of these diseases and suggest novel therapeutic approaches.

Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Increased Risk of Female-to-Male HIV-1 Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Analysis among African Couples

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1–infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1–infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis and has fuelled its resurgence, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, there were an estimated 1.1 million incident cases of tuberculosis among the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy has substantial potential to prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analysed the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.

An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

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