Month: January 2018

Widespread Genetic Incompatibilities between First-Step Mutations during Parallel Adaptation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a Common Environment

The number of different evolutionary pathways available to populations adapting to a new environment depends on the range and characteristics of possible genetic solutions. Even populations adapting to the same environmental challenge can diverge genetically from each other if different mutations happen to establish. The long-term impact of this initial divergence depends on the fitness interactions between the available alleles that underlie adaptation to a given environment (“epistasis”).

What Makes a Reach Movement Effortful? Physical Effort Discounting Supports Common Minimization Principles in Decision Making and Motor Control

Should I rather bring the groceries from the car trunk to the kitchen in 1 trip or in 2 trips? Even in a seemingly simple decision like this, multiple decision parameters are at odds. When doing a single trip, this bothersome task will certainly be finished more quickly but will require an intense physical effort

What Drives Cooperative Breeding?

Soon after W. D. Hamilton revolutionized behavioral ecology with his ground-breaking papers formalizing the theory of inclusive fitness [1], field biologists swarmed out into the world to critically examine behavioral phenomena that were potentially dependent on genetic relatedness for their evolution. Among the more notable of these behaviors was that of cooperative breeding, in which individuals of the same species beyond a breeding pair—“helpers” or “helpers at the nest”—appear to altruistically cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood.

Stochastic assembly produces heterogeneous communities in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

The gut microbiome varies greatly between individuals, and this variation could have important health consequences. These differences may be due to deterministic differences such as genetic differences between individuals or differences in individual history and environmental exposure; stochasticity may also play a role in variation between individual communities.

Hormonal Signal Amplification Mediates Environmental Conditions during Development and Controls an Irreversible Commitment to Adulthood

Many animals can choose between different developmental fates to maximize fitness. Despite the complexity of environmental cues and life history, different developmental fates are executed in a robust fashion. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a powerful model to examine this phenomenon because it can adopt one of two developmental fates (adulthood or diapause) depending on environmental conditions.

Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life

The probability of spontaneous genetic mutations occurring during replication evolves among organisms. This mutation rate can also vary at a particular site in a particular genotype, dependent upon the environment.

Melting Arctic Ice and its Possible Impacts on Humans

How does the reduction of Arctic Sea ice directly impact the habitat of human beings? In this paper, we discuss the myriad ways that the Arctic sea ice could potentially harm human beings by reducing certain animal habitats that are used for subsistence.

Research Priorities for Harnessing Plant Microbiomes in Sustainable Agriculture

A growing appreciation of microbial diversity and function in combination with advances in omics (i.e., the study of large-scale biological datasets, including genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites) and data analytics technologies are fueling rapid advances in microbiome research. One driving motivation—harnessing beneficial microbes and reducing impacts of detrimental microbes—is common to both humans and crop plants.

Earthquake and Tsunami Hit Scammon Bay

This paper is designed about what would happen in the even of the disaster. If there was a tsunami it could destroy the gas station. It could also ruin the airport. A Tsunami might not reach the pumphouse, but an earthquake could knock it down.

The Challenges That Western Alaska Faces Regarding Coastal Erosion and the Methods Needed to Combat its Long-term Effects

Coastal erosion is a huge problem for many people living on the coast; this particular problem is something nobody wants to deal with. Coastal erosion can cause major property damage, loss of valuable land, and damage to the economy. It is important to fight against this terrible predicament because property, land, and the economy are important to human nature.

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