Month: September 2018

Widespread Genetic Incompatibilities between First-Step Mutations

The number of different evolutionary pathways available to populations adapting to a new environment depends on the range and characteristics of possible genetic solutions. Even populations adapting to the same environmental challenge can diverge genetically from each other if different mutations happen to establish. The long-term impact of this initial divergence depends on the fitness interactions between the available alleles that underlie adaptation to a given environment (“epistasis”).

Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life

The probability of spontaneous genetic mutations occurring during replication evolves among organisms. This mutation rate can also vary at a particular site in a particular genotype, dependent upon the environment.

Viral Genetic Variation Accounts for a Third of Variability in HIV-1 Set-Point Viral Load in Europe

The outcome of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, henceforth “HIV” for simplicity) is highly variable across individuals, with time to AIDS ranging from 2 years to more than 20 years [1–4]. Quantifying the fraction of this variability explained by genetic variability in the virus is important to our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and of the evolution of virulence [5].

Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention

The brain has limited processing capacity, yet it is constantly confronted with enormous amounts of information. Attentional mechanisms are therefore needed to selectively enhance the most task-relevant information.

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