Month: October 2018

Stochastic assembly produces heterogeneous communities in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

The gut microbiome varies greatly between individuals, and this variation could have important health consequences. These differences may be due to deterministic differences such as genetic differences between individuals or differences in individual history and environmental exposure; stochasticity may also play a role in variation between individual communities.

Hormonal Signal Amplification Mediates Environmental Conditions during Development and Controls an Irreversible Commitment to Adulthood

Many animals can choose between different developmental fates to maximize fitness. Despite the complexity of environmental cues and life history, different developmental fates are executed in a robust fashion. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a powerful model to examine this phenomenon because it can adopt one of two developmental fates (adulthood or diapause) depending on environmental conditions.

Research Priorities for Harnessing Plant Microbiomes in Sustainable Agriculture

A growing appreciation of microbial diversity and function in combination with advances in omics (i.e., the study of large-scale biological datasets, including genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites) and data analytics technologies are fueling rapid advances in microbiome research. One driving motivation—harnessing beneficial microbes and reducing impacts of detrimental microbes—is common to both humans and crop plants.

Spatial Learning Depends on Both the Addition and Removal of New Hippocampal Neurons

It was classically assumed that once the development of the central nervous system ended, “everything can die, nothing can regenerate and be renewed”. This dogma, restricting neurogenesis to a developmental phenomenon has, however, been challenged by the discovery that new neurons are created in specific regions of the adult mammalian brain.

Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

People with cancer are known to be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and this risk is believed to vary according to cancer type, stage of disease, and treatment modality. Our purpose was to summarise the existing literature to determine precisely and accurately the absolute risk of VTE in cancer patients, stratified by malignancy site and background risk of VTE.

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