Month: May 2019

Hydrogen Sulfide Hastens New Leaf Growth

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas with a distinctive rotten egg smell that is widely found in the environment from volcanoes, sulfur springs, undersea vents, swamps, municipal sewers, and in crude petroleum and natural gas (1). H2S is toxic at high concentrations, but at very small amounts, it can help plants and our bodies in many ways, including the improvement of plant germination and drought resistance, protection against cardiovascular diseases, and stimulation of memory (2-9).

Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

Copy number variation (CNV) is widespread in human populations, with 5%–10% of the human reference genome showing CNV between normal individuals. CNV of protein-coding genes contributes to multiple disorders, and specific genetic syndromes have been directly attributed to CNV. The pathological effects of CNV imply that gene copy number impacts gene expression, and we have recently shown that changing copy number can directly influence RNA processing.

Design of a Fluid-Powered Solar Tracker for Solar Panels

The study’s objective was to design, build, and test a full-scale, self-powered solar tracking mechanism incorporating a damper system to reduce wind flutter.

Engineering Biospecificity into a Single Albumin-Binding Domain

Monoclonal antibodies have been widely used in nearly all areas of life science for over three decades and represent a growing class of agents also in the clinics, mainly due to their generally high specificity and excellent pharmacokinetic properties. Today, regulatory authorities have approved over 20 monoclonal antibodies for therapeutic or diagnostic use.

Use of Carbon Dioxide as a Renewable Reagent

Petroleum is heavily depended upon for energy production, the production of plastic, and the manufacturing of multiple important chemicals. Though petroleum is said to have broad areas of applications and the capacity to constantly produce a large amount of energy cheaply, it is also a nonrenewable resource that destroys our everyday environment. This project focuses on using wasted carbon dioxide as a renewable reagent to catalytically synthesize commercially useful cyclic carbonates.

Elucidating the Ticking of an In Vitro Circadian Clockwork

Circadian clocks are self-sustained biochemical oscillators that underlie daily rhythms of sleep/waking, metabolic activity, gene expression, and many other biological processes. Their properties include temperature compensation, a time constant of approximately 24 h, and high precision.

Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex

A central role of the brain is to build a model of the world and objects within it that remains stable across changes in sensory input when we move. In hearing, this requires that an observer maintains the identification of an auditory object as they move through an environment.

The Spread of Wolbachia through Mosquito Populations

In 2008, 2 groups of researchers independently reported that a bacterial symbiont called Wolbachia made Drosophila resistant to RNA viruses [1,2]. This added to a growing list of symbionts that act as an ‘accessory immune system’, protecting insects against infection. However, both groups realized that the significance of their results went beyond insect immunity and potentially provided a new way to control mosquito-borne viruses.

Research Priorities for Harnessing Plant Microbiomes in Sustainable Agriculture

A growing appreciation of microbial diversity and function in combination with advances in omics (i.e., the study of large-scale biological datasets, including genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites) and data analytics technologies are fueling rapid advances in microbiome research. One driving motivation—harnessing beneficial microbes and reducing impacts of detrimental microbes—is common to both humans and crop plants.

Efficient Immunoglobulin Gene Disruption and Targeted Replacement in Rabbit Using Zinc Finger Nucleases

Rabbits are important laboratory animals, widely used in many areas of biomedical research, including the production of antibodies and recombinant proteins. Rabbit models have contributed to the understanding of human diseases and the development of therapeutic compounds, devices and techniques.

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