Month: July 2019

History of Antibiotic Adaptation Influences Microbial Evolutionary Dynamics During Subsequent Treatment

Antibiotic resistance is a growing healthcare concern whereby bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to eradicate due to their ability to survive antibiotic treatments [1]. There have been reported cases of resistance for nearly every antibiotic we have available [2]. Coupled with the fact that the antibiotic discovery pipeline has slowed over the past few decades [3], there is a dire need to find better treatment strategies using existing antibiotics that can slow or even reverse the development of resistance.

High-Throughput Assay for the Identification of Compounds Regulating Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

Osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders represent a major public health threat. One out of every two women and one in four men, aged 50 or older, is expected to develop an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime [1], [2], [3]. There is a huge demand for products enhancing bone regeneration. Therefore, the last decade was denominated the bone and joint decade by the World Health Authority.

Powering Wearable Microelectronics

Wearable low power biometric devices and body sensor network systems (BSNs) such as heart, respiration, and activity monitors are popular devices that are predicted to increase tenfold by 2018. This project focused on biomechanical energy harvesting from rib cage expansion using piezoelectric materials and frequency up conversion to power wearable microelectronics.

B. thetaiotaomicron in the Presence of Yogurt

The microbiome of humans contains an estimated 100 trillion microbial cells as well as an estimated quadrillion viruses. It is responsible for energy harvest, the breakdown of indigestible carbohydrates, the production of important biological molecules, and, most importantly, proper immune system development.

Hierarchical patterning modes orchestrate hair follicle morphogenesis

Diverse structures, such as the skeletal elements of the limb, rugae of the palate, cartilaginous rings of the trachea, intestinal villi, and feathers, scales, or hair follicles, develop in a periodically patterned manner. Although many specific models to explain the spontaneous emergence of such repeating patterns in embryonic tissues have been proposed [1], these can be grouped into 2 general classes (Fig 1A). The first class, based on the Turing reaction–diffusion system, relies on the operation of 2 opposing signalling processes: an activator, which is self-enhancing and has a limited spatial range, coupled with the production of an inhibitor with a greater spatial range.

The Future of Disease Diagnosis

MIT researchers have devised a new, non-invasive technique to determine cell stiffness and thus reveal disease.

Transient Orcas: A Dying Breed

As the muscular body catapults from the water, the crowd “oohs” and “aahs,” straining against the rails to see the massive fluke slap against the waves. The stutter of camera clicks and flashes ceases, as the admirers wait anxiously for the next opportunity to record their great Alaskan adventure on film. As they continue their sightseeing, the tour guide informs the excited passengers about the killer whales, the mighty king of the seas. Each summer many vacationers migrate to Alaska to see the rugged scenery and magnificent wildlife.

What Drives Cooperative Breeding?

Soon after W. D. Hamilton revolutionized behavioral ecology with his ground-breaking papers formalizing the theory of inclusive fitness [1], field biologists swarmed out into the world to critically examine behavioral phenomena that were potentially dependent on genetic relatedness for their evolution. Among the more notable of these behaviors was that of cooperative breeding, in which individuals of the same species beyond a breeding pair—“helpers” or “helpers at the nest”—appear to altruistically cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood.

Health Disparities and Clinical Trial Recruitment: Is There a Duty to Tweet?

While it is well known that the homogeneity of clinical trial participants often threatens the goal of attaining generalizable knowledge, researchers often cite issues with recruitment, including a lack of interest from participants, shortages of resources, or difficulty accessing particular populations, to explain the lack of diversity within sampling. It is proposed that social media might provide an opportunity to overcome these obstacles through affordable, targeted recruitment advertisements or messages.

Diabetes – Under the Scalpel

Recent estimates by the International Diabetes Federation and World Health Organization suggest that currently there are 415 people around the world with the disease. This may climb to 650 million by 2040.

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