Month: September 2019

Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries

Overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts threaten the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide [1,2]. To counter this problem, nearly 200 governments have committed to protecting 10% of all coastal and marine areas “effectively” by 2020

The Molecular Basis for the Broad Substrate Specificity of Human Sulfotransferase 1A1

The cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULTs) family catalyzes the transfer of a sulfate group from the universal 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) donor to a wide variety of acceptor molecules bearing a hydroxyl or an amine group [1], [2], [3]. Sulfonation results in inactivation of the majority of acceptors, including neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and drugs, thus modulating their biological activity and rendering the product more soluble and readily excretable.

Clarifying the Mechanism of Superantigen Toxicity

Superantigens are bacterial proteins that generate a powerful immune response by binding to Major Histocompatibility Complex class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T cell receptors on T cells. A recent article reveals that at least one of the superantigens, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), also binds the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, suggesting that a much larger and potentially more stable complex is formed at the immunological synapse than was previously thought.

Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

The pancreas is the origin of some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Understanding the signalling pathways and gene regulatory networks underlying pancreas development will shed light in the origins of these diseases and suggest novel therapeutic approaches.

Jamb and Jamc Muscle in on Myoblast Fusion

Dashing down a track, sprinters rely on the special properties of the fast-twitch muscle fibers interspersed throughout their skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, long-distance runners are more concerned with performance of the slow-twitch muscle fibers in those same muscles. In humans, these fibers differ in the number of mitochondria they contain, but both types of muscle are formed from a cellular syncytium: many muscle cells fuse together into a multinucleate mass.

Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Increased Risk of Female-to-Male HIV-1 Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Analysis among African Couples

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1–infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1–infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.

Widespread Genetic Incompatibilities between First-Step Mutations

The number of different evolutionary pathways available to populations adapting to a new environment depends on the range and characteristics of possible genetic solutions. Even populations adapting to the same environmental challenge can diverge genetically from each other if different mutations happen to establish. The long-term impact of this initial divergence depends on the fitness interactions between the available alleles that underlie adaptation to a given environment (“epistasis”).

Integrated Electron Microscopy: Super-Duper Resolution

Since its inception, electron microscopy (EM) has revealed that cellular membranes are organized into structurally distinct subdomains, created by localized protein and lipid assemblies to perform specific complex cellular functions. Caveolae are membrane subdomains that function as signaling platforms, endocytic carriers, sensors of membrane tension, and mechanical stress, as well as in lipid homeostasis.

Lung Basal Stem Cells Rapidly Repair DNA Damage Using the Error-Prone Nonhomologous End-Joining Pathway

Human lungs are constantly exposed to inhaled environmental and chemical insults that have the potential to damage cellular DNA. Lung stem and progenitor cells must be capable of repairing their DNA to maintain healthy survival

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis and has fuelled its resurgence, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, there were an estimated 1.1 million incident cases of tuberculosis among the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy has substantial potential to prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analysed the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.

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