RNA stores tau reversibly in complex coacervates

Inclusions consisting of the tau protein occur in many neurological conditions with Alzheimer disease the most prominent among them. Normally, tau is in a dynamic equilibrium between a microtubule-bound and free state. Under disease conditions tau self-assembles into fibrils that eventually lead to highly insoluble polymeric inclusions known as neurofibrillary tangles.

Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin

B cell receptor (BCR) signaling is vital for B cell development and function. When BCRs are cross-linked by antigens, it induces the conformational changes of signaling subunits immunoglobulin α chain (Igα) and immunoglobulin β chain (Igβ). The conformational changes of Igα and Igβ lead to the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) domains of Igα and Igβ.

Integrating Phylodynamics and Epidemiology to Estimate Transmission Diversity in Viral Epidemics

Mathematical epidemiology describes the spread of infectious diseases and aims to aid in the design of effective public health interventions [1]–[3]. Central to this endeavour is the basic reproductive number (R0) of an infectious disease, the mean number of secondary infections per primary infection in a completely susceptible population [4] (for notations see Table 1). Under simple epidemiological scenarios, in which all infected individuals behave identically, R0depends on the transmission probability per contact with a susceptible individual, the duration of infectiousness and the rate at which new contacts are made.

Integrated Time-Lapse and Single-Cell Transcription Studies Highlight the Variable and Dynamic Nature of Human Hematopoietic Cell Fate Commitment

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all the cellular components of blood. The major stages of differentiation and the key genes participating in this process are now well characterised [1]. According to the classical view, haematopoiesis is a hierarchically organised process of successive fate commitments, in which differentiation potential is progressively restricted in an orderly way over cell divisions.

Independently Evolving Species in Asexual Bdelloid Rotifers

Species are fundamental units of biology, but there remains uncertainty on both the pattern and processes of species existence. Are species real evolutionary entities or convenient figments of taxonomists’ imagination [1–3]? If they exist, what are the main processes causing organisms to diversify [1,4]? Despite considerable debate, surprisingly few studies have formally tested the evolutionary status of species [1,5,6].

Ribosome Traffic on mRNAs Maps to Gene Ontology: Genome-wide Quantification of Translation Initiation Rates and Polysome Size Regulation

The expression of genes can be considered as a two-stage process, beginning with transcription and the production of an mRNA, followed by translation of that mRNA into protein by the cell’s ribosome population. Gene expression must be tightly regulated to control protein composition, enabling the cell to rapidly respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. For this reason, cells exert fine control over gene expression, both at the transcriptional, and post-transcriptional level.

Reduced insulin signaling maintains electrical transmission in a neural circuit in aging flies

Synapses undergo age-associated morphological and functional changes in a number of model organisms and in humans. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, synaptic changes were seen during normal aging in both central and peripheral parts of the nervous system and linked to cognition, memory, learning, locomotor, and homeostatic deficits.

Red Tides

Red tides occur all over the world but the farthest north they have been detected in Alaska is Cook Inlet. They are large blooms of toxin producing dinoflagellates that may color the water a deep red. The key point is the production of toxin. Red tides can actually produce other colorations of the tides, but not all colored tides are necessarily toxic. The toxin is taken in by filter feeding animals and stored in their flesh.

Increasing Efficiency of Preclinical Research By Group Sequential Designs

Group sizes in preclinical research are seldom informed by statistical power considerations but rather are chosen on practicability [1, 2]. Typical sample sizes are small, around n = 8 per group (, and are only sufficient to detect relatively large sizes of effects. Consequently, true positives are often missed (false negatives), and many statistically significant findings are due to chance (false positives).

In-Silico Patterning of Vascular Mesenchymal Cells in Three Dimensions

The evolution of tissue form in development, wound healing, and regeneration is a dynamic process that involves the integration of local cues on cell fate and function. These cues include interactions with soluble factors (growth factors, morphogens, dissolved gases) and insoluble factors (extracellular matrix, neighboring cells) in a three-dimensional context. A fundamental understanding of how tissue structure evolves is critical to the rational development of engineered tissues for therapeutic applications.

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