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In Vitro Model of Vascularized Bone: Synergizing Vascular Development and Osteogenesis

In native bone, synergistic interactions between osteoblasts/osteogenic precursors and endothelial cells enable coordinated development of vasculature and mineralized tissue. In the process of intramembranous ossification during craniofacial bone growth, this cell coupling results in close spatial relationships between the two tissues in newly forming bone, with the vascular network serving as a ‘template’ for bone mineral deposition [1]. A synergy between the two cell populations has also been observed during endochondral ossification.

Land- or Ocean-Based Conservation

Widespread degradation and loss of coastal marine ecosystems has occurred over the previous centuries and has accelerated in recent decades [1–5]. These changes compromise the delivery of important ecosystem services to human society [6]. Coastal marine ecosystems pose a particular challenge to environmental managers because they are exposed to threats occurring both in the ocean (e.g., overfishing, direct damage) and on land.

Human Cyclophilin 40 Unravels Neurotoxic Amyloids

Most mammalian proteins have intrinsic sequences that promote amyloid fibril formation [1]. This is believed to be a natural process to prevent the formation of more toxic amorphous, intermediate structures [1,2]. However, in some cases such as neurodegenerative disease, aberrant amyloid formation promotes proteotoxicity

How to Change the Oligomeric State of a Circular Protein Assembly: Switch from 11-Subunit to 12-Subunit TRAP Suggests a General Mechanism

Multisubunit circular proteins play key roles in a variety of biological mechanisms. A number of proteins including bacterial toxins [1], viral portal proteins [2], flagellar motor proteins [3], [4], Sm-like proteins [5], components of the type III secretion system [6] and protective antigen of anthrax toxin [7], [8] can form circular oligomers with alternative oligomeric states. In some cases, for example for the viral portal proteins, a single functional oligomeric state is found in vivo and it is not known if the alternative oligomeric states are active.

History of Antibiotic Adaptation Influences Microbial Evolutionary Dynamics During Subsequent Treatment

Antibiotic resistance is a growing healthcare concern whereby bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to eradicate due to their ability to survive antibiotic treatments [1]. There have been reported cases of resistance for nearly every antibiotic we have available [2]. Coupled with the fact that the antibiotic discovery pipeline has slowed over the past few decades [3], there is a dire need to find better treatment strategies using existing antibiotics that can slow or even reverse the development of resistance.

High-Throughput Assay for the Identification of Compounds Regulating Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

Osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders represent a major public health threat. One out of every two women and one in four men, aged 50 or older, is expected to develop an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime [1], [2], [3]. There is a huge demand for products enhancing bone regeneration. Therefore, the last decade was denominated the bone and joint decade by the World Health Authority.

Hierarchical patterning modes orchestrate hair follicle morphogenesis

Diverse structures, such as the skeletal elements of the limb, rugae of the palate, cartilaginous rings of the trachea, intestinal villi, and feathers, scales, or hair follicles, develop in a periodically patterned manner. Although many specific models to explain the spontaneous emergence of such repeating patterns in embryonic tissues have been proposed [1], these can be grouped into 2 general classes (Fig 1A). The first class, based on the Turing reaction–diffusion system, relies on the operation of 2 opposing signalling processes: an activator, which is self-enhancing and has a limited spatial range, coupled with the production of an inhibitor with a greater spatial range.

Health Disparities and Clinical Trial Recruitment: Is There a Duty to Tweet?

While it is well known that the homogeneity of clinical trial participants often threatens the goal of attaining generalizable knowledge, researchers often cite issues with recruitment, including a lack of interest from participants, shortages of resources, or difficulty accessing particular populations, to explain the lack of diversity within sampling. It is proposed that social media might provide an opportunity to overcome these obstacles through affordable, targeted recruitment advertisements or messages.

Haloquadratum walsbyi : Limited Diversity in a Global Pond

First described in 1980 [1], the square haloarchaeon, Haloquadratum walsbyi, is commonly the dominant species found in hypersaline waters such as salt lakes and saltern crystallizer ponds [2], [3]. Its cells are highly distinctive, being thin squares or rectangles, usually containing gas vesicles and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) granules [4], [5]. It thrives at saturating salt concentrations, where it can represent ≥80% of the microbial population [6], and its cytoplasm is completely adapted to function optimally at similarly high levels of potassium chloride.

Global Economic Trade-Offs Between Wild Nature and Tropical Agriculture

Growing global demands for food and biofuels generate pressures for deforestation across the tropics [1]. Much of this deforestation is carried out without information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation [2]. Studies estimating the trade-offs between the economic value of multiple forest ecosystem services (ES) and agricultural conversion have been largely constrained to local and national case studies.

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