Biochemistry

How Bitter Medicine Could Clear Up Asthma

Airway obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cause the airways to narrow and make it difficult to breathe. Broncodilators are used to treat these conditions, but they often don’t work in severe cases and can cause serious side effects, such as abnormal heart rhythms and increased blood pressure.

Multidrug-Resistant Gonorrhea: A Research and Development Roadmap to Discover New Medicines

Gonorrhea is among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with an estimated 78 million new cases in 2012 [1]. Countries with good surveillance have reported increases in cases of gonorrhea, such as an 11% rise between 2014 and 2015 in the United Kingdom [2], a doubling of cases among MSM (men who have sex with men) in France between 2013 and 2015 [3], a 5% rise between 2013 and 2015 in the United States [4], and an increase of 29%–146% in almost all Australian states between 2010 and 2014 [5], all reflecting longer-term trends. Decreasing condom use [6], increased urbanization and travel, poor infection detection rates, and inadequate or failed treatment [7] all contribute to this increase.

A Tale of Two Species: An Exploration into the Effects of Increased Alexandrium Populations on Shellfish Harvesting in Kachemak Bay

Kachemak Bay has the optimum conditions for shellfish of all types. A wide tidal variation and nutrients from glacial runoff, provide a highly favorable environment for the growing of oysters, mussels, and clams. In addition, the region’s temperate summers discourage the development of Alexandrium, the dinoflagellate most commonly known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP).

Mucin Acts as a Nutrient Source and a Signal for the Differential Expression of Genes coding for cellular processes and virulence factors in Acinetobacter baumannii

The capacity of Acinetobacter baumannii to persist and cause infections depends on its interaction with abiotic and biotic surfaces, including those found on medical devices and host mucosal surfaces. However, the extracellular stimuli affecting these interactions are poorly understood.

Microtubules in Bacteria: Ancient Tubulins Build a Five-Protofilament Homolog of the Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton

Microtubules play crucial roles in cytokinesis, transport, and motility, and are therefore superb targets for anti-cancer drugs. All tubulins evolved from a common ancestor they share with the distantly related bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, but while eukaryotic tubulins evolved into highly conserved microtubule-forming heterodimers, bacterial FtsZ presumably continued to function as single homopolymeric protofilaments as it does today

Algal Populations as an Indicator of a Shifting Arctic Ecosystem

Coastlines all around the world are subject to rising sea level. Homes, livelihoods, and industries are being washed away by ever-warming seawater. The exponential rise in greenhouse gas output contributes to an undeniable rise in worldwide temperatures and melting arctic sea ice. The sea ice model suggests a loss of multiyear ice by the year 2042.

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Modelling the Cost of Antiretroviral Treatment—State of the Art and Future Directions

Policy discussions about the feasibility of massively scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce HIV transmission and incidence hinge on accurately projecting the cost of such scale-up in comparison to the benefits from reduced HIV incidence and mortality. We review the available literature on modelled estimates of the cost of providing ART to different populations around the world, and suggest alternative methods of characterising cost when modelling several decades into the future

The Comprehensive Management of Chinook Salmon in Campbell Creek Estuary

The focal point of our efforts is the Campbell Creek Estuary in Anchorage, Alaska, and the Chinook salmon within it. Campbell Creek Estuary is an ecologically diverse area in which numerous natural processes occur and serve as a bio-filter for the more populated areas of Anchorage (Municipality of Anchorage 2010).

Gut Microbiota Is a Key Modulator of Insulin Resistance in TLR 2 Knockout Mice

Environmental factors and host genetics interact to control the gut microbiota, which may have a role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. TLR2-deficient mice, under germ-free conditions, are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. It is possible that the presence of gut microbiota could reverse the phenotype of an animal, inducing insulin resistance in an animal genetically determined to have increased insulin sensitivity, such as the TLR2 KO mice.

Fusion of Protein Aggregates Facilitates Asymmetric Damage Segregation

Asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins at cell division generates a cell that retains damage and a clean cell that supports population survival. In cells that divide asymmetrically, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, segregation of damaged proteins is achieved by retention and active transport. We have previously shown that in the symmetrically dividing Schizosaccharomyces pombe there is a transition between symmetric and asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins.

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