Biochemistry

Gut Microbiota Is a Key Modulator of Insulin Resistance in TLR 2 Knockout Mice

Environmental factors and host genetics interact to control the gut microbiota, which may have a role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. TLR2-deficient mice, under germ-free conditions, are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. It is possible that the presence of gut microbiota could reverse the phenotype of an animal, inducing insulin resistance in an animal genetically determined to have increased insulin sensitivity, such as the TLR2 KO mice.

Fusion of Protein Aggregates Facilitates Asymmetric Damage Segregation

Asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins at cell division generates a cell that retains damage and a clean cell that supports population survival. In cells that divide asymmetrically, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, segregation of damaged proteins is achieved by retention and active transport. We have previously shown that in the symmetrically dividing Schizosaccharomyces pombe there is a transition between symmetric and asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins.

Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles

Fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane is thought to occur in three ordered steps: docking, priming, and fusion [1]. The biological state of a synaptic vesicle can be defined by three distinct parameters: morphology (its location in the synapse); physiology (its release competence); and molecular interactions.

Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination

Myelin is essential for rapid impulse propagation and the proper function of the nervous system. Schwann cells (SCs) form myelin in peripheral nerves in 2 subsequent steps, radial sorting of axons and myelination.

Lipids in HIV’s Envelope Help the Virus to Spread

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that patrol tissues, on the lookout for microbial invaders. When DCs encounter a pathogen, they chop it up into tiny pieces and then carry samples of it to local lymph nodes. There, they display their finds to another kind of immune cell, the T cell, which then mounts a full-fledged immune response against the invader.

Fallout of Fukushima: A Monitoring Program to Preserve the Gulf of Alaska’s Economy

The Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is crucial to the Alaskan fishing, tourism, and shipping industries which are cornerstones of the Alaskan economy. Currently, the GOA is a healthy and productive ecosystem which provides invaluable cultural and commercial resources; these resources are derived from a number of aquatic fauna that spend the majority of their lifespan in the GOA region. Knowledge of this ecosystem, before the advent of any negative ecological and economical impacts as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster, is essential baseline

Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System

The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone.

Establishing Clonal Cell Lines with Endothelial-Like Potential from CD9hi, SSEA-1− Cells in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Embryoid Bodies

Differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into specific cell types with minimal risk of teratoma formation could be efficiently directed by first reducing the differentiation potential of ESCs through the generation of clonal, self-renewing lineage-restricted stem cell lines. Efforts to isolate these stem cells are, however, mired in an impasse where the lack of purified lineage-restricted stem cells has hindered the identification of defining markers for these rare stem cells and, in turn, their isolation.

Waste Not, Want Not

Theoretically all parts of a fish could be sold and used in various ways. However we live in Cordova Alaska, a place where canneries produce hundreds of pounds of fish waste every day. This waste includes mainly the head, tail and bones of the fish, parts that the cannery cannot use. All of this gets pumped into the surrounding waters where it is consumed by various marine life, including Steller sea lions, glaucous winged gulls and halibut.

Surviving The Salmongeddon

In Dillingham, and around the world, oceans are changing; due to these changes oceanic habitats are being affected. The changes could result in what we call the “salmongeddon”- the functional extinction of Alaska’s salmon.

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