Biochemistry

His Hormone, Her Oogenesis: How Male Malaria Mosquitoes Trigger Female Egg Development

A female mosquito needs two things to reproduce: your blood and a visit from a male mosquito. The blood provides the nutrient-rich meal she will use to feed her developing eggs. The male provides not only sperm, but also a complex mix of proteins and other molecules, secreted from the so-called male accessory glands (MAGs) and deposited along with the sperm during mating.

The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex

Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes.

The Effects of Ocean Acidification on Meroplanktonic Organisms

Ocean acidification is the acidification of the world’s ocean due to the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the absorbing of the CO2 into the ocean. The absorption is making the ocean more acidic by releasing hydrogen (H+) ions and thus lowering the pH.

Melting Arctic Ice and its Possible Impacts on Humans

How does the reduction of Arctic Sea ice directly impact the habitat of human beings? In this paper, we discuss the myriad ways that the Arctic sea ice could potentially harm human beings by reducing certain animal habitats that are used for subsistence.

The Effects of Fish Processing Bio-waste on the Ocean’s Organisms and Nutrients

The effect fish processing bio-waste has on surrounding environments, habitats, and organisms is highly controversial. Although it is a natural pollutant, fish bio-waste has the ability to affect oxygen levels, salinity, temperature, pH levels, and the overall abundance of organisms in sea water.

Earthquake and Tsunami Hit Scammon Bay

This paper is designed about what would happen in the even of the disaster. If there was a tsunami it could destroy the gas station. It could also ruin the airport. A Tsunami might not reach the pumphouse, but an earthquake could knock it down.

The Effectiveness of Emergency Obstetric Referral Interventions in Developing Country Settings: A Systematic Review

Pregnancy complications can be unpredictable and many women in developing countries cannot access health facilities where life-saving care is available. This study assesses the effects of referral interventions that enable pregnant women to reach health facilities during an emergency, after the decision to seek care is made.

The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Bitter Tastant-Induced Bronchodilation

Bronchodilators are a standard medicine for treating airway obstructive diseases, and β2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been the most commonly used bronchodilators since their discovery. Strikingly, activation of G-protein-coupled bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in airway smooth muscle (ASM) causes a stronger bronchodilation in vitro and in vivo than β2 agonists, implying that new and better bronchodilators could be developed. A critical step towards realizing this potential is to understand the mechanisms underlying this bronchodilation, which remain ill-defined.

Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

People with cancer are known to be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and this risk is believed to vary according to cancer type, stage of disease, and treatment modality. Our purpose was to summarise the existing literature to determine precisely and accurately the absolute risk of VTE in cancer patients, stratified by malignancy site and background risk of VTE.

The Ethics of Switch/Simplify in Antiretroviral Trials: Non-Inferior or Just Inferior?

The efficacy of new antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs is established in phase 3 trials, including in patients with virological failure (i.e., ongoing viral replication) on existing ART. In these trials, a new drug generally demonstrates improved virological control relative to placebo. Improved ART efficacy over the last 15 years has led to a dramatic decrease in the numbers of treatment-experienced patients with virological failure [1].

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