Biology

OmniChange: The Sequence Independent Method for Simultaneous Site-Saturation of Five Codons

Directed evolution and rational design are two complementing and often synergistic approaches for tailoring biocatalyst properties to application demands

The Road Not Taken: Could Stress-Specific Mutations Lead to Different Evolutionary Paths?

The evolutionary trajectories of organisms are paved with mutations, which generate the raw material (genetic variation) essential for evolutionary change. In biology class, we learn that mutations are random: the probability that a mutation occurs is independent of its fitness effect (i.e., its impact on individual survival or reproduction). As Luria and Delbruck famously showed [1], bacterial mutations that confer resistance to a virus continually arise in a population before exposure to the virus; under subsequent viral infection, these mutations spread in the population.

Osteoinduction of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Bioactive Composite Scaffolds without Supplemental Osteogenic Growth Factors

Regenerative medicine aims to repair and replace lost or damaged tissues by initiating the natural regeneration process. Current paradigms in tissue engineering often involve the combination of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells and the synthesis of novel biomaterials, tailoring physical, chemical and structural properties to mimic crucial aspects of the physiological niche

Ribosome Traffic on mRNAs Maps to Gene Ontology: Genome-wide Quantification of Translation Initiation Rates and Polysome Size Regulation

The expression of genes can be considered as a two-stage process, beginning with transcription and the production of an mRNA, followed by translation of that mRNA into protein by the cell’s ribosome population. Gene expression must be tightly regulated to control protein composition, enabling the cell to rapidly respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. For this reason, cells exert fine control over gene expression, both at the transcriptional, and post-transcriptional level.

Object segmentation controls image reconstruction from natural scenes

Consider the image in Fig 1A. During the twentieth century, knowledge of how it may be represented in early visual cortex was galvanized by the discovery that neurons respond to specific features defining the image, such as the orientation and size of its edges and lines

The Nuclear Receptor HIZR-1 Uses Zinc as a Ligand to Mediate Homeostasis in Response to High Zinc

Zinc is an essential nutrient for all life, including plants, animals and microbes, because zinc is involved in many different cellular events. Zn2+ binds tightly to many proteins and thereby contributes to their tertiary structure or catalytic activity [1], and Zn2+ has been proposed to function as a second messenger signaling molecule during synaptic transmission, development, and immune responses. Zinc homeostasis is vital for human health.

The Neural Representation of Prospective Choice during Spatial Planning and Decisions

Goal-directed behaviour rests on being able to rapidly evaluate the potential consequences of future actions. For example, consider the neuronal processing required for planning a new route home when a road you normally take is closed

Neuronal synchrony and the relation between the blood-oxygen-level dependent response and the local field potential

Most measurements of activity in the living human brain arise from the responses of large populations of neurons, spanning the millimeter scale of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) to the centimeter scale of electro- and magneto-encephalography (EEG and MEG).

Stochastic assembly produces heterogeneous communities in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

The gut microbiome varies greatly between individuals, and this variation could have important health consequences. These differences may be due to deterministic differences such as genetic differences between individuals or differences in individual history and environmental exposure; stochasticity may also play a role in variation between individual communities.

Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries Marine Reserve Targets to Sustain and Rebuild Unregulated Fisheries

Overfishing and other anthropogenic impacts threaten the sustainability of coastal marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide [1,2]. To counter this problem, nearly 200 governments have committed to protecting 10% of all coastal and marine areas “effectively” by 2020

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