Biology

The Molecular Basis for the Broad Substrate Specificity of Human Sulfotransferase 1A1

The cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULTs) family catalyzes the transfer of a sulfate group from the universal 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate (PAPS) donor to a wide variety of acceptor molecules bearing a hydroxyl or an amine group [1], [2], [3]. Sulfonation results in inactivation of the majority of acceptors, including neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and drugs, thus modulating their biological activity and rendering the product more soluble and readily excretable.

Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

The pancreas is the origin of some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Understanding the signalling pathways and gene regulatory networks underlying pancreas development will shed light in the origins of these diseases and suggest novel therapeutic approaches.

Widespread Genetic Incompatibilities between First-Step Mutations

The number of different evolutionary pathways available to populations adapting to a new environment depends on the range and characteristics of possible genetic solutions. Even populations adapting to the same environmental challenge can diverge genetically from each other if different mutations happen to establish. The long-term impact of this initial divergence depends on the fitness interactions between the available alleles that underlie adaptation to a given environment (“epistasis”).

Lung Basal Stem Cells Rapidly Repair DNA Damage Using the Error-Prone Nonhomologous End-Joining Pathway

Human lungs are constantly exposed to inhaled environmental and chemical insults that have the potential to damage cellular DNA. Lung stem and progenitor cells must be capable of repairing their DNA to maintain healthy survival

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis and has fuelled its resurgence, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, there were an estimated 1.1 million incident cases of tuberculosis among the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy has substantial potential to prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analysed the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.

The Long-Range Effects on Locally Important Marine Resources

Kotzebue, Alaska, a tiny city perched on the Baldwin Peninsula, is thirty-three miles above the Arctic Circle. Kotzebue is bordered by the Kotzebue Sound to the west and the Hotham Sound to the east. These two bodies of water both join into the Chucki Sea.

Methods of Reusing Food Waste

The development of an algorithm through the assessment of nutrients in a recycled food supplement for canines.

Protein Oxidation Implicated as the Primary Determinant of Bacterial Radioresistance

The amount of DNA damage caused by a given dose of γ-radiation for resistant and sensitive bacteria is very similar. Yet, the range of ionizing radiation (IR) resistances is large, with a factor of 200 separating the most-resistant from the most-sensitive species. For example, Deinococcus radiodurans can survive levels of IR (10 kGy) that induce approximately 100 DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) per genome, whereas Shewanella oneidensis is killed by levels of IR (0.07 kGy) that result in less than 1 DSB per genome.

An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review

Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings.

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