Transcriptome Analysis of MSC and MSC-Derived Osteoblasts on Resomer® LT706 and PCL: Impact of Biomaterial Substrate on Osteogenic Differentiation

Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stem cells and represent a particularly attractive source for tissue engineering, because they are readily isolated and expanded and can differentiate into several mature cell types, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and myocytes [1], [2 and references therein]. Due to their mesenchymal origin and their osteogenic differentiation capacity, MSC are particularly promising cells for bone replacement.

Rural Living and Subsistence Lifestyles and How They Impact Each Other

Our research topic is the dump and human waste contaminating our food supply. Tununak is a small village of about 350 people and is located near the Bering Sea. There are several hoppers around town, which you could locate if you simply took one stroll around.

RosettaRemodel: A Generalized Framework for Flexible Backbone Protein Design

Computational protein design tools to date have been useful for engineering proteins with a wide range of functions, including DNA binding, co-factor binding, catalysis, fluorescence spectral change, peptide-protein specificity, and protein-protein interaction. In building nanostructures, computational protein design methods have been applied to designing hyperthermophilic proteins, metalloproteins, water-soluble membrane channels, and higher order macromolecular assemblies. Many of these successes rely on fixed backbone approaches that maintain the backbone conformations seen in the original high-resolution crystal structures and focus on remodeling only the sidechains.

Transient Orcas: A Dying Breed

As the muscular body catapults from the water, the crowd “oohs” and “aahs,” straining against the rails to see the massive fluke slap against the waves. The stutter of camera clicks and flashes ceases, as the admirers wait anxiously for the next opportunity to record their great Alaskan adventure on film. As they continue their sightseeing, the tour guide informs the excited passengers about the killer whales, the mighty king of the seas. Each summer many vacationers migrate to Alaska to see the rugged scenery and magnificent wildlife.

The Yin and Yang of Memory Consolidation: Hippocampal and Neocortical

Memory traces of episodic-like events are encoded in parallel by the hippocampus and neocortex throughout the day, but their retention over time is often transient. Traces subject to consolidation are retained, whereas later memory retrieval is unsuccessful when consolidation fails or is insufficient. Consolidation in both the hippocampus and neocortex is, however, now recognised as a complex set of processes involving both “cellular” mechanisms that operate largely within individual neurons and “systems” mechanisms that include network interactions across brain areas.

RNA stores tau reversibly in complex coacervates

Inclusions consisting of the tau protein occur in many neurological conditions with Alzheimer disease the most prominent among them. Normally, tau is in a dynamic equilibrium between a microtubule-bound and free state. Under disease conditions tau self-assembles into fibrils that eventually lead to highly insoluble polymeric inclusions known as neurofibrillary tangles.

The Spread of Wolbachia through Mosquito Populations

In 2008, 2 groups of researchers independently reported that a bacterial symbiont called Wolbachia made Drosophila resistant to RNA viruses [1,2]. This added to a growing list of symbionts that act as an ‘accessory immune system’, protecting insects against infection. However, both groups realized that the significance of their results went beyond insect immunity and potentially provided a new way to control mosquito-borne viruses.

Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin

B cell receptor (BCR) signaling is vital for B cell development and function. When BCRs are cross-linked by antigens, it induces the conformational changes of signaling subunits immunoglobulin α chain (Igα) and immunoglobulin β chain (Igβ). The conformational changes of Igα and Igβ lead to the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) domains of Igα and Igβ.

The Road Not Taken: Could Stress-Specific Mutations Lead to Different Evolutionary Paths?

The evolutionary trajectories of organisms are paved with mutations, which generate the raw material (genetic variation) essential for evolutionary change. In biology class, we learn that mutations are random: the probability that a mutation occurs is independent of its fitness effect (i.e., its impact on individual survival or reproduction). As Luria and Delbruck famously showed [1], bacterial mutations that confer resistance to a virus continually arise in a population before exposure to the virus; under subsequent viral infection, these mutations spread in the population.

Ribosome Traffic on mRNAs Maps to Gene Ontology: Genome-wide Quantification of Translation Initiation Rates and Polysome Size Regulation

The expression of genes can be considered as a two-stage process, beginning with transcription and the production of an mRNA, followed by translation of that mRNA into protein by the cell’s ribosome population. Gene expression must be tightly regulated to control protein composition, enabling the cell to rapidly respond to a wide range of environmental conditions. For this reason, cells exert fine control over gene expression, both at the transcriptional, and post-transcriptional level.

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