Biology

Large-Scale Bi-Level Strain Design Approaches and Mixed-Integer Programming Solution Techniques

Metabolic engineering of microbial strains has been of great interest for producing a wide variety of chemicals including biofuels, polymer precursors, and drugs. While conventional metabolic engineering approaches often focus on modifications to the desired and neighboring pathways, recent developments in computational analysis of metabolic models allow identification of genetic modifications needed to improve production of biochemicals

Planning for Population Growth to Manage Estuarine Wetlands

Residential development is the most important challenge facing our community and the coastal ecosystem supporting that community. The Matanuska Susitna Borough (MSB) is the fastest growing community in Alaska, with a population increase of almost 50% in the last 10 years.

Open Syntaxin Docks Synaptic Vesicles

Fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane is thought to occur in three ordered steps: docking, priming, and fusion [1]. The biological state of a synaptic vesicle can be defined by three distinct parameters: morphology (its location in the synapse); physiology (its release competence); and molecular interactions.

Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life

The probability of spontaneous genetic mutations occurring during replication evolves among organisms. This mutation rate can also vary at a particular site in a particular genotype, dependent upon the environment.

Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin

B cell receptor (BCR) signaling is vital for B cell development and function. When BCRs are cross-linked by antigens, it induces the conformational changes of signaling subunits immunoglobulin α chain (Igα) and immunoglobulin β chain (Igβ). The conformational changes of Igα and Igβ lead to the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) domains of Igα and Igβ.

Laminin 211 inhibits protein kinase A in Schwann cells to modulate neuregulin 1 type III-driven myelination

Myelin is essential for rapid impulse propagation and the proper function of the nervous system. Schwann cells (SCs) form myelin in peripheral nerves in 2 subsequent steps, radial sorting of axons and myelination.

The Circadian Clock Regulates Auxin Signaling and Responses in Arabidopsis

Plants, which as sessile organisms are intimately tied to their environment, have evolved many ways to deal with changing local conditions. One coping mechanism is the circadian oscillator or clock, which produces self-sustained rhythms with an approximately 24-h period. It is often suggested that the clock provides an adaptive advantage by allowing organisms to anticipate regular changes in the environment and temporally separate incompatible metabolic events.

Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

When making decisions in a group, individuals can adapt their initial beliefs according to the social influence produced by the opinions of other individuals in the group. In modern society, this type of process is widespread and can be seen in settings ranging from work meetings to the courtroom.

Viral Genetic Variation Accounts for a Third of Variability in HIV-1 Set-Point Viral Load in Europe

The outcome of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, henceforth “HIV” for simplicity) is highly variable across individuals, with time to AIDS ranging from 2 years to more than 20 years [1–4]. Quantifying the fraction of this variability explained by genetic variability in the virus is important to our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and of the evolution of virulence [5].

Pharmacogenomic identification of small molecules for lineage specific manipulation of subventricular zone germinal activity

Controlling the fate of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a key therapeutic strategy in neuroregenerative medicine. The most promising and direct approach would be to use small molecules to promote the generation of a particular neural lineage, without the need to introduce complex genetic methods.

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