Biology

Integrating Phylodynamics and Epidemiology to Estimate Transmission Diversity in Viral Epidemics

Mathematical epidemiology describes the spread of infectious diseases and aims to aid in the design of effective public health interventions. Central to this endeavour is the basic reproductive number (R0) of an infectious disease, the mean number of secondary infections per primary infection in a completely susceptible population

Integrating Phylodynamics and Epidemiology to Estimate Transmission Diversity in Viral Epidemics

Mathematical epidemiology describes the spread of infectious diseases and aims to aid in the design of effective public health interventions [1]–[3]. Central to this endeavour is the basic reproductive number (R0) of an infectious disease, the mean number of secondary infections per primary infection in a completely susceptible population [4] (for notations see Table 1). Under simple epidemiological scenarios, in which all infected individuals behave identically, R0depends on the transmission probability per contact with a susceptible individual, the duration of infectiousness and the rate at which new contacts are made.

Systemic Bud Induction and Retinoic Acid Signaling Underlie Whole Body Regeneration in the Urochordate Botrylloides leachi

Some of the most fundamental issues in developmental biology concern the ability of metazoans to regenerate. In most multicellular organisms, adult stem cells maintain organs’ homeostasis throughout life and facilitate tissue repair after injury or disease [1]. Several organisms are capable of regrowing amputated organs and body parts, for example, amphibian limbs, lens, and retina.

Integrated Time-Lapse and Single-Cell Transcription Studies Highlight the Variable and Dynamic Nature of Human Hematopoietic Cell Fate Commitment

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all the cellular components of blood. The major stages of differentiation and the key genes participating in this process are now well characterised [1]. According to the classical view, haematopoiesis is a hierarchically organised process of successive fate commitments, in which differentiation potential is progressively restricted in an orderly way over cell divisions.

Superfamily Assignments for the Yeast Proteome through Integration of Structure Prediction with the Gene Ontology

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most widely studied organisms, yet a large fraction of its proteins are of unknown structure and/or unknown function. Knowledge of the structure of a protein is critical to understand how it functions, and hence, a complete set of protein structures for yeast is desirable, but difficult to accomplish experimentally.

Independently Evolving Species in Asexual Bdelloid Rotifers

Species are fundamental units of biology, but there remains uncertainty on both the pattern and processes of species existence. Are species real evolutionary entities or convenient figments of taxonomists’ imagination [1–3]? If they exist, what are the main processes causing organisms to diversify [1,4]? Despite considerable debate, surprisingly few studies have formally tested the evolutionary status of species [1,5,6].

What Makes a Reach Movement Effortful?

Should I rather bring the groceries from the car trunk to the kitchen in 1 trip or in 2 trips? Even in a seemingly simple decision like this, multiple decision parameters are at odds. When doing a single trip, this bothersome task will certainly be finished more quickly but will require an intense physical effort

Increasing Efficiency of Preclinical Research By Group Sequential Designs

Group sizes in preclinical research are seldom informed by statistical power considerations but rather are chosen on practicability [1, 2]. Typical sample sizes are small, around n = 8 per group (http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/camarades/), and are only sufficient to detect relatively large sizes of effects. Consequently, true positives are often missed (false negatives), and many statistically significant findings are due to chance (false positives).

In-Silico Patterning of Vascular Mesenchymal Cells in Three Dimensions

The evolution of tissue form in development, wound healing, and regeneration is a dynamic process that involves the integration of local cues on cell fate and function. These cues include interactions with soluble factors (growth factors, morphogens, dissolved gases) and insoluble factors (extracellular matrix, neighboring cells) in a three-dimensional context. A fundamental understanding of how tissue structure evolves is critical to the rational development of engineered tissues for therapeutic applications.

In Vitro Model of Vascularized Bone: Synergizing Vascular Development and Osteogenesis

In native bone, synergistic interactions between osteoblasts/osteogenic precursors and endothelial cells enable coordinated development of vasculature and mineralized tissue. In the process of intramembranous ossification during craniofacial bone growth, this cell coupling results in close spatial relationships between the two tissues in newly forming bone, with the vascular network serving as a ‘template’ for bone mineral deposition [1]. A synergy between the two cell populations has also been observed during endochondral ossification.

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