Chemistry

Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Increased Risk of Female-to-Male HIV-1 Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Analysis among African Couples

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1–infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1–infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.

Integrated Electron Microscopy: Super-Duper Resolution

Since its inception, electron microscopy (EM) has revealed that cellular membranes are organized into structurally distinct subdomains, created by localized protein and lipid assemblies to perform specific complex cellular functions. Caveolae are membrane subdomains that function as signaling platforms, endocytic carriers, sensors of membrane tension, and mechanical stress, as well as in lipid homeostasis.

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis and has fuelled its resurgence, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, there were an estimated 1.1 million incident cases of tuberculosis among the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy has substantial potential to prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analysed the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.

Protein Oxidation Implicated as the Primary Determinant of Bacterial Radioresistance

The amount of DNA damage caused by a given dose of γ-radiation for resistant and sensitive bacteria is very similar. Yet, the range of ionizing radiation (IR) resistances is large, with a factor of 200 separating the most-resistant from the most-sensitive species. For example, Deinococcus radiodurans can survive levels of IR (10 kGy) that induce approximately 100 DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) per genome, whereas Shewanella oneidensis is killed by levels of IR (0.07 kGy) that result in less than 1 DSB per genome.

An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review

Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings.

Neuroaesthetics and the Trouble with Beauty

The famous nineteenth-century psychophysicist Gustav Fechner was also a poet and art critic. Armed with the tools of science, Fechner sought to reconcile his various interests. He would doubtless be interested by technological developments in neuroscience that have revealed the operations of neurons at cellular resolution and have enabled us to peer almost unnoticed into each other’s working brains.

How Bitter Medicine Could Clear Up Asthma

Airway obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cause the airways to narrow and make it difficult to breathe. Broncodilators are used to treat these conditions, but they often don’t work in severe cases and can cause serious side effects, such as abnormal heart rhythms and increased blood pressure.

Multidrug-Resistant Gonorrhea: A Research and Development Roadmap to Discover New Medicines

Gonorrhea is among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), with an estimated 78 million new cases in 2012 [1]. Countries with good surveillance have reported increases in cases of gonorrhea, such as an 11% rise between 2014 and 2015 in the United Kingdom [2], a doubling of cases among MSM (men who have sex with men) in France between 2013 and 2015 [3], a 5% rise between 2013 and 2015 in the United States [4], and an increase of 29%–146% in almost all Australian states between 2010 and 2014 [5], all reflecting longer-term trends. Decreasing condom use [6], increased urbanization and travel, poor infection detection rates, and inadequate or failed treatment [7] all contribute to this increase.

A Tale of Two Species: An Exploration into the Effects of Increased Alexandrium Populations on Shellfish Harvesting in Kachemak Bay

Kachemak Bay has the optimum conditions for shellfish of all types. A wide tidal variation and nutrients from glacial runoff, provide a highly favorable environment for the growing of oysters, mussels, and clams. In addition, the region’s temperate summers discourage the development of Alexandrium, the dinoflagellate most commonly known to cause Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP).

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