Chemistry

Fallout of Fukushima: A Monitoring Program to Preserve the Gulf of Alaska’s Economy

The Gulf of Alaska (GOA) is crucial to the Alaskan fishing, tourism, and shipping industries which are cornerstones of the Alaskan economy. Currently, the GOA is a healthy and productive ecosystem which provides invaluable cultural and commercial resources; these resources are derived from a number of aquatic fauna that spend the majority of their lifespan in the GOA region. Knowledge of this ecosystem, before the advent of any negative ecological and economical impacts as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi disaster, is essential baseline

Experimental Evidence for Phonemic Contrasts in a Nonhuman Vocal System

The ability to generate new meaning by rearranging combinations of meaningless sounds is a fundamental component of language. Although animal vocalizations often comprise combinations of meaningless acoustic elements, evidence that rearranging such combinations generates functionally distinct meaning is lacking. Here, we provide evidence for this basic ability in calls of the chestnut-crowned babbler (Pomatostomus ruficeps), a highly cooperative bird of the Australian arid zone.

Establishing Clonal Cell Lines with Endothelial-Like Potential from CD9hi, SSEA-1− Cells in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Embryoid Bodies

Differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into specific cell types with minimal risk of teratoma formation could be efficiently directed by first reducing the differentiation potential of ESCs through the generation of clonal, self-renewing lineage-restricted stem cell lines. Efforts to isolate these stem cells are, however, mired in an impasse where the lack of purified lineage-restricted stem cells has hindered the identification of defining markers for these rare stem cells and, in turn, their isolation.

Waste Not, Want Not

Theoretically all parts of a fish could be sold and used in various ways. However we live in Cordova Alaska, a place where canneries produce hundreds of pounds of fish waste every day. This waste includes mainly the head, tail and bones of the fish, parts that the cannery cannot use. All of this gets pumped into the surrounding waters where it is consumed by various marine life, including Steller sea lions, glaucous winged gulls and halibut.

Surviving The Salmongeddon

In Dillingham, and around the world, oceans are changing; due to these changes oceanic habitats are being affected. The changes could result in what we call the “salmongeddon”- the functional extinction of Alaska’s salmon.

Development and Evolution of the Muscles of the Pelvic Fin

Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land.

Coastal Resilience to Oil Spills in Cook Inlet

Coastal resilience is important to coastal communities. Coastal resilience can be defined as the capacity for a coastal community to absorb a disturbance while at the same time undergo changes that help retain that community’s services, structures, and sense of identity. Hazards that would require coastal resilience include natural and man-made disturbances such as tsunamis, earthquakes, landslides, flooding, and oil spills.

Unraveling the Transmission Ecology of Polio

Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales.

Proposal to Build a Heavy Icebreaker for use by the Coast Guard in the Northwest Passage

With the recent opening of the Northwest Passage above the Arctic Coast of the United States and Canada, increased ship traffic from shipping, research, and tourism will increase risk of ships running aground or becoming trapped within the ice in the Arctic Sea.

Bilge Dumping in Prince William Sound Small Vessels, Big Impacts

Prince William Sound (Figure 1) is located in southcentral Alaska. It covers 65,000 square kilometers (personal communication Scott Pegau, 2013) and there are 3,800 miles of coastline (Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 2013) containing environmentally sensitive areas that are important for commercial harvests.

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