The Sensitive Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea has suffered due to many pollutants; some of which have taken a major toll on the Baltic’s habitat; these pollutants include nuclear waste and agricultural chemical runoff.

An Analysis of Arctic Coastal Resilience in Response to Erosion

The current environment of the Arctic coastline is shifting. As global climate change continues, the Arctic is growing progressively warmer, and as continental and glacial ice melts, increased water makes its way to the ocean basins, causing sea levels to rise in a form of eustasy, or long-term variation in sea levels, which accelerates erosion.

The Pike Plague

Throughout history there have been many plagues of all different types and forms. Though the problem we are facing today is not a terminal disease or a swarm of locusts eating our crops, the problem we are facing in Anchorage, Alaska, is the plague of the pike.

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Issues in Economic Evaluation

The results from the HTPN 052 trial reported in August 2011 demonstrated under the controlled conditions of a well-conducted clinical trial that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) can be highly effective in preventing transmission of HIV in stable heterosexual HIV-discordant couples [1].

The Mongoose, the Pheasant, the Pox, and the Retrovirus

Paleovirology is the study of ancient viruses. The existence of a paleovirus can sometimes be detected by virtue of its accidental insertion into the germline of different animal species, which allows one to date when the virus actually existed. However, the ancient and the modern often connect, as modern viruses have unexpected origins that can be traced to ancient infections.

Hormonal Signal Amplification Mediates Environmental Conditions during Development and Controls an Irreversible Commitment to Adulthood

Many animals can choose between different developmental fates to maximize fitness. Despite the complexity of environmental cues and life history, different developmental fates are executed in a robust fashion. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a powerful model to examine this phenomenon because it can adopt one of two developmental fates (adulthood or diapause) depending on environmental conditions.

His Hormone, Her Oogenesis: How Male Malaria Mosquitoes Trigger Female Egg Development

A female mosquito needs two things to reproduce: your blood and a visit from a male mosquito. The blood provides the nutrient-rich meal she will use to feed her developing eggs. The male provides not only sperm, but also a complex mix of proteins and other molecules, secreted from the so-called male accessory glands (MAGs) and deposited along with the sperm during mating.

The Fifth Adaptor Protein Complex

Adaptor protein (AP) complexes sort cargo into vesicles for transport from one membrane compartment of the cell to another. Four distinct AP complexes have been identified, which are present in most eukaryotes.

The Effects of Ocean Acidification on Meroplanktonic Organisms

Ocean acidification is the acidification of the world’s ocean due to the increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the absorbing of the CO2 into the ocean. The absorption is making the ocean more acidic by releasing hydrogen (H+) ions and thus lowering the pH.

Melting Arctic Ice and its Possible Impacts on Humans

How does the reduction of Arctic Sea ice directly impact the habitat of human beings? In this paper, we discuss the myriad ways that the Arctic sea ice could potentially harm human beings by reducing certain animal habitats that are used for subsistence.

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