Computer Science

Viral Genetic Variation Accounts for a Third of Variability in HIV-1 Set-Point Viral Load in Europe

The outcome of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, henceforth “HIV” for simplicity) is highly variable across individuals, with time to AIDS ranging from 2 years to more than 20 years [1–4]. Quantifying the fraction of this variability explained by genetic variability in the virus is important to our understanding of the mechanisms of pathogenesis and of the evolution of virulence [5].

Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention

The brain has limited processing capacity, yet it is constantly confronted with enormous amounts of information. Attentional mechanisms are therefore needed to selectively enhance the most task-relevant information.

Two Different Mechanisms Support Selective Attention at Different Phases of Training

Selective attention influences sensory processing such that relevant information is preferentially encoded at the expense of irrelevant information. Over the last several decades, multiple electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in humans and nonhuman primates have shown that attention selectively increases the amplitude, or the gain, of visual responses evoked by attended stimuli compared to responses evoked by unattended stimuli.

Three-Dimensional Preservation of Cellular and Subcellular Structures Suggests 1.6 Billion-Year-Old Crown-Group Red Algae

Multicellular eukaryotes rose to prominence around the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic transition coupled to evolving ecological interactions between megascopic autotrophs and heterotrophs. Animals in particular are thought to have had a pivotal role as—for example—predators, grazers, and filterers in expanding the food web through interactive processes not available to microbial life.

RosettaRemodel: A Generalized Framework for Flexible Backbone Protein Design

Computational protein design tools to date have been useful for engineering proteins with a wide range of functions, including DNA binding, co-factor binding, catalysis, fluorescence spectral change, peptide-protein specificity, and protein-protein interaction. In building nanostructures, computational protein design methods have been applied to designing hyperthermophilic proteins, metalloproteins, water-soluble membrane channels, and higher order macromolecular assemblies. Many of these successes rely on fixed backbone approaches that maintain the backbone conformations seen in the original high-resolution crystal structures and focus on remodeling only the sidechains.

The Yin and Yang of Memory Consolidation: Hippocampal and Neocortical

Memory traces of episodic-like events are encoded in parallel by the hippocampus and neocortex throughout the day, but their retention over time is often transient. Traces subject to consolidation are retained, whereas later memory retrieval is unsuccessful when consolidation fails or is insufficient. Consolidation in both the hippocampus and neocortex is, however, now recognised as a complex set of processes involving both “cellular” mechanisms that operate largely within individual neurons and “systems” mechanisms that include network interactions across brain areas.

The Neural Representation of Prospective Choice during Spatial Planning and Decisions

Goal-directed behaviour rests on being able to rapidly evaluate the potential consequences of future actions. For example, consider the neuronal processing required for planning a new route home when a road you normally take is closed

Place field assembly distribution encodes preferred locations

The hippocampus mediates the formation of adaptive memory for positive or negative experiences, but the neurophysiological mechanisms of this learning process remain unknown. The hippocampus may encode locations independently from the stimuli and events that are associated with these locations.

Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

The pancreas is the origin of some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Understanding the signalling pathways and gene regulatory networks underlying pancreas development will shed light in the origins of these diseases and suggest novel therapeutic approaches.

Object segmentation controls image reconstruction from natural scenes

Consider the image in Fig 1A. During the twentieth century, knowledge of how it may be represented in early visual cortex was galvanized by the discovery that neurons respond to specific features defining the image, such as the orientation and size of its edges and lines

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