Computer Science

Sequential sampling of visual objects during sustained attention

The brain has limited processing capacity, yet it is constantly confronted with enormous amounts of information. Attentional mechanisms are therefore needed to selectively enhance the most task-relevant information.

Integrated Time-Lapse and Single-Cell Transcription Studies Highlight the Variable and Dynamic Nature of Human Hematopoietic Cell Fate Commitment

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all the cellular components of blood. The major stages of differentiation and the key genes participating in this process are now well characterised [1]. According to the classical view, haematopoiesis is a hierarchically organised process of successive fate commitments, in which differentiation potential is progressively restricted in an orderly way over cell divisions.

Increasing Efficiency of Preclinical Research By Group Sequential Designs

Group sizes in preclinical research are seldom informed by statistical power considerations but rather are chosen on practicability [1, 2]. Typical sample sizes are small, around n = 8 per group (http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/camarades/), and are only sufficient to detect relatively large sizes of effects. Consequently, true positives are often missed (false negatives), and many statistically significant findings are due to chance (false positives).

Land- or Ocean-Based Conservation

Widespread degradation and loss of coastal marine ecosystems has occurred over the previous centuries and has accelerated in recent decades [1–5]. These changes compromise the delivery of important ecosystem services to human society [6]. Coastal marine ecosystems pose a particular challenge to environmental managers because they are exposed to threats occurring both in the ocean (e.g., overfishing, direct damage) and on land.

Powering Wearable Microelectronics

Wearable low power biometric devices and body sensor network systems (BSNs) such as heart, respiration, and activity monitors are popular devices that are predicted to increase tenfold by 2018. This project focused on biomechanical energy harvesting from rib cage expansion using piezoelectric materials and frequency up conversion to power wearable microelectronics.

Health Disparities and Clinical Trial Recruitment: Is There a Duty to Tweet?

While it is well known that the homogeneity of clinical trial participants often threatens the goal of attaining generalizable knowledge, researchers often cite issues with recruitment, including a lack of interest from participants, shortages of resources, or difficulty accessing particular populations, to explain the lack of diversity within sampling. It is proposed that social media might provide an opportunity to overcome these obstacles through affordable, targeted recruitment advertisements or messages.

Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

Copy number variation (CNV) is widespread in human populations, with 5%–10% of the human reference genome showing CNV between normal individuals. CNV of protein-coding genes contributes to multiple disorders, and specific genetic syndromes have been directly attributed to CNV. The pathological effects of CNV imply that gene copy number impacts gene expression, and we have recently shown that changing copy number can directly influence RNA processing.

Egocentric and allocentric representations in auditory cortex

A central role of the brain is to build a model of the world and objects within it that remains stable across changes in sensory input when we move. In hearing, this requires that an observer maintains the identification of an auditory object as they move through an environment.

Dynamic patterning by the Drosophila pair-rule network reconciles long-germ and short-germ segmentation

Like other arthropods, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has a segmented body plan. This segmental pattern is laid down in the embryo during the first 3 hours of development.

Developing a New Search for Randomly Accessible Data

There are only two widely-used searches for randomly accessible data: linear search and binary search. I developed and created a new search and tested it against binary search, linear search, and variations of them.

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