Computer Science

Dynamic Response of a Human Neck Replica to Axial-Compression Impact Loading

A human neck replica was made to simulate dynamic response to axial loading, H1. Dynamic loading of neck replica can simulate realistic axial-compression injury to the cervical spine. H2. Severity of measured neck force depends upon impact load and velocity. H3. Neck flexion-extension position affects measured neck force. H4. Simulated neck musculature affects neck stability.

Lung Basal Stem Cells Rapidly Repair DNA Damage Using the Error-Prone Nonhomologous End-Joining Pathway

Human lungs are constantly exposed to inhaled environmental and chemical insults that have the potential to damage cellular DNA. Lung stem and progenitor cells must be capable of repairing their DNA to maintain healthy survival

Large-Scale Bi-Level Strain Design Approaches and Mixed-Integer Programming Solution Techniques

Metabolic engineering of microbial strains has been of great interest for producing a wide variety of chemicals including biofuels, polymer precursors, and drugs. While conventional metabolic engineering approaches often focus on modifications to the desired and neighboring pathways, recent developments in computational analysis of metabolic models allow identification of genetic modifications needed to improve production of biochemicals

Integrated Time-Lapse and Single-Cell Transcription Studies Highlight the Variable and Dynamic Nature of Human Hematopoietic Cell Fate Commitment

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) give rise to all the cellular components of blood. The major stages of differentiation and the key genes participating in this process are now well characterised [1]. According to the classical view, haematopoiesis is a hierarchically organised process of successive fate commitments, in which differentiation potential is progressively restricted in an orderly way over cell divisions.

Increasing Efficiency of Preclinical Research By Group Sequential Designs

Group sizes in preclinical research are seldom informed by statistical power considerations but rather are chosen on practicability [1, 2]. Typical sample sizes are small, around n = 8 per group (http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/camarades/), and are only sufficient to detect relatively large sizes of effects. Consequently, true positives are often missed (false negatives), and many statistically significant findings are due to chance (false positives).

Land- or Ocean-Based Conservation

Widespread degradation and loss of coastal marine ecosystems has occurred over the previous centuries and has accelerated in recent decades [1–5]. These changes compromise the delivery of important ecosystem services to human society [6]. Coastal marine ecosystems pose a particular challenge to environmental managers because they are exposed to threats occurring both in the ocean (e.g., overfishing, direct damage) and on land.

Powering Wearable Microelectronics

Wearable low power biometric devices and body sensor network systems (BSNs) such as heart, respiration, and activity monitors are popular devices that are predicted to increase tenfold by 2018. This project focused on biomechanical energy harvesting from rib cage expansion using piezoelectric materials and frequency up conversion to power wearable microelectronics.

Health Disparities and Clinical Trial Recruitment: Is There a Duty to Tweet?

While it is well known that the homogeneity of clinical trial participants often threatens the goal of attaining generalizable knowledge, researchers often cite issues with recruitment, including a lack of interest from participants, shortages of resources, or difficulty accessing particular populations, to explain the lack of diversity within sampling. It is proposed that social media might provide an opportunity to overcome these obstacles through affordable, targeted recruitment advertisements or messages.

Eugene – A Domain Specific Language for Specifying and Constraining Synthetic Biological Parts, Devices, and Systems

In its development as an engineering field, synthetic biology is at a stage where encapsulation has been identified as a fundamental challenge. Encapsulation will enable design re-use, sharing, and software tool development, all of which greatly increase synthetic biology’s ability to grow both in complexity and in community size.

Environmental change drives accelerated adaptation through stimulated copy number variation

Copy number variation (CNV) is widespread in human populations, with 5%–10% of the human reference genome showing CNV between normal individuals. CNV of protein-coding genes contributes to multiple disorders, and specific genetic syndromes have been directly attributed to CNV. The pathological effects of CNV imply that gene copy number impacts gene expression, and we have recently shown that changing copy number can directly influence RNA processing.

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