Computer Science

Digital Health: Tracking Physiomes and Activity Using Wearable Biosensors Reveals Useful Health-Related Information

Physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and body temperature can provide critical information about the physical health status of a person. Elevation of any of these parameters can be of concern; elevated HR and blood pressure are associated with cardiovascular disease, and elevated body temperature occurs during pathogen infection and inflammation [1–4]. Peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) is a measure of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the blood, and patients with chronic pulmonary disease often have lower resting SpO2 and are required to use supplementary oxygen to attain a more optimal SpO2

Brain–Computer Interface–Based Communication in the Completely Locked-In State

Communication is the process of expressing and sharing feelings, thoughts, and intentions with one another by verbal and various nonverbal means. Communication skills appear automatic but can pose severe challenges to individuals suffering from motor neuron disorders. The most devastating of motor neuron diseases is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) [1], which is progressive and renders an individual motionless, severely affecting his or her communication ability [2].

Automatic Compilation from High-Level Biologically-Oriented Programming Language to Genetic Regulatory Networks

Synthetic biology is an emerging field at the interface of biology, engineering, and physical sciences, which focuses on the systematic design and engineering of biological systems [1]–[3]. This field brings a set of new approaches for tackling biological problems and at the same time addresses real world problems.

Breast Cancer Metadata Collection

This study is the first to apply deep learning to analyze tumor-associated stroma, discovering novel diagnostic biomarkers for breast cancer.

A Shifting Mutational Landscape in 6 Nutritional States: Stress-Induced Mutagenesis as a Series of Distinct Stress Input–Mutation Output Relationships

The notion of stress-induced mutagenesis (SIM) [1,2] has changed our perspective on the flexibility of mutation rates in organisms. The earliest evidence for SIM was that starvation can increase the supply of mutations, presumably increasing the capacity for adaptive changes and evolvability [1,3,4]. SIM is a collection of mechanisms observed in bacterial, yeast, and human cells, in which mutagenesis pathways are activated in response to adverse conditions, such as starvation or antibiotic stresses [5,6].

A Mechanism for the Cortical Computation of Hierarchical Linguistic Structure

Detecting relevant signals in the environment is a crucial function in biological systems. For humans, language is a critical, if not the defining, species-specific environmental signal to detect. As such, it is not surprising that the human auditory system is specialised for speech processing [e.g., 1,2].

Eugene – A Domain Specific Language for Specifying and Constraining Synthetic Biological Parts, Devices, and Systems

In its development as an engineering field, synthetic biology is at a stage where encapsulation has been identified as a fundamental challenge. Encapsulation will enable design re-use, sharing, and software tool development, all of which greatly increase synthetic biology’s ability to grow both in complexity and in community size.

Two Different Mechanisms Support Selective Attention at Different Phases of Training

Selective attention influences sensory processing such that relevant information is preferentially encoded at the expense of irrelevant information. Over the last several decades, multiple electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in humans and nonhuman primates have shown that attention selectively increases the amplitude, or the gain, of visual responses evoked by attended stimuli compared to responses evoked by unattended stimuli.

Three-Dimensional Preservation of Cellular and Subcellular Structures Suggests 1.6 Billion-Year-Old Crown-Group Red Algae

Multicellular eukaryotes rose to prominence around the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic transition coupled to evolving ecological interactions between megascopic autotrophs and heterotrophs. Animals in particular are thought to have had a pivotal role as—for example—predators, grazers, and filterers in expanding the food web through interactive processes not available to microbial life.

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