Environmental Sciences

Hormonal Signal Amplification Mediates Environmental Conditions during Development and Controls an Irreversible Commitment to Adulthood

Many animals can choose between different developmental fates to maximize fitness. Despite the complexity of environmental cues and life history, different developmental fates are executed in a robust fashion. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a powerful model to examine this phenomenon because it can adopt one of two developmental fates (adulthood or diapause) depending on environmental conditions.

Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life

The probability of spontaneous genetic mutations occurring during replication evolves among organisms. This mutation rate can also vary at a particular site in a particular genotype, dependent upon the environment.

Melting Arctic Ice and its Possible Impacts on Humans

How does the reduction of Arctic Sea ice directly impact the habitat of human beings? In this paper, we discuss the myriad ways that the Arctic sea ice could potentially harm human beings by reducing certain animal habitats that are used for subsistence.

Research Priorities for Harnessing Plant Microbiomes in Sustainable Agriculture

A growing appreciation of microbial diversity and function in combination with advances in omics (i.e., the study of large-scale biological datasets, including genes, transcripts, proteins and metabolites) and data analytics technologies are fueling rapid advances in microbiome research. One driving motivation—harnessing beneficial microbes and reducing impacts of detrimental microbes—is common to both humans and crop plants.

Earthquake and Tsunami Hit Scammon Bay

This paper is designed about what would happen in the even of the disaster. If there was a tsunami it could destroy the gas station. It could also ruin the airport. A Tsunami might not reach the pumphouse, but an earthquake could knock it down.

The Challenges That Western Alaska Faces Regarding Coastal Erosion and the Methods Needed to Combat its Long-term Effects

Coastal erosion is a huge problem for many people living on the coast; this particular problem is something nobody wants to deal with. Coastal erosion can cause major property damage, loss of valuable land, and damage to the economy. It is important to fight against this terrible predicament because property, land, and the economy are important to human nature.

RNA Mimicry by the Fap7 Adenylate Kinase in Ribosome Biogenesis

During biogenesis of the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, the pre-40S particles are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final cleavage of the 20S pre-rRNA to mature 18S rRNA. Amongst the factors involved in this maturation step, Fap7 is unusual, as it both interacts with ribosomal protein Rps14 and harbors adenylate kinase activity, a function not usually associated with ribonucleoprotein assembly

Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

People with cancer are known to be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and this risk is believed to vary according to cancer type, stage of disease, and treatment modality. Our purpose was to summarise the existing literature to determine precisely and accurately the absolute risk of VTE in cancer patients, stratified by malignancy site and background risk of VTE.

Researching New Methods of Screening for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Lessons from Pre-eclampsia

Complications of pregnancy contribute to a substantial proportion of the global burden of disease [1]. Most adverse pregnancy outcomes occur to women who lack obvious risk factors. However, despite many years of research, the current approach to screening low-risk women for complications such as pre-eclampsia and stillbirth is still based around serial measurement of blood pressure, urinalysis, and symphysis-fundal height [2].

Reduction in Clostridium difficile Infection Rates after Mandatory Hospital Public Reporting: Findings from a Longitudinal Cohort Study in Canada

The Role of Public Reporting in Improving Hospital Quality of Care is Controversial. Reporting of hospital-acquired infection rates has been introduced in multiple health care systems, but its relationship to infection rates has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether mandatory public reporting by hospitals is associated with a reduction in hospital rates of Clostridium difficile infection.

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