Environmental Sciences

Jamb and Jamc Muscle in on Myoblast Fusion

Dashing down a track, sprinters rely on the special properties of the fast-twitch muscle fibers interspersed throughout their skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, long-distance runners are more concerned with performance of the slow-twitch muscle fibers in those same muscles. In humans, these fibers differ in the number of mitochondria they contain, but both types of muscle are formed from a cellular syncytium: many muscle cells fuse together into a multinucleate mass.

Bacterial Vaginosis Associated with Increased Risk of Female-to-Male HIV-1 Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Analysis among African Couples

Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the normal vaginal flora, has been associated with a 60% increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition in women and higher concentration of HIV-1 RNA in the genital tract of HIV-1–infected women. However, whether BV, which is present in up to half of African HIV-1–infected women, is associated with an increase in HIV-1 transmission to male partners has not been assessed in previous studies.

Integrated Electron Microscopy: Super-Duper Resolution

Since its inception, electron microscopy (EM) has revealed that cellular membranes are organized into structurally distinct subdomains, created by localized protein and lipid assemblies to perform specific complex cellular functions. Caveolae are membrane subdomains that function as signaling platforms, endocytic carriers, sensors of membrane tension, and mechanical stress, as well as in lipid homeostasis.

Antiretroviral Therapy for Prevention of Tuberculosis in Adults with HIV: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis and has fuelled its resurgence, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, there were an estimated 1.1 million incident cases of tuberculosis among the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy has substantial potential to prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analysed the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.

The Long-Range Effects on Locally Important Marine Resources

Kotzebue, Alaska, a tiny city perched on the Baldwin Peninsula, is thirty-three miles above the Arctic Circle. Kotzebue is bordered by the Kotzebue Sound to the west and the Hotham Sound to the east. These two bodies of water both join into the Chucki Sea.

Methods of Reusing Food Waste

The development of an algorithm through the assessment of nutrients in a recycled food supplement for canines.

An Estimate of the Total DNA in the Biosphere

Although prokaryotes evolved at least 3 billion years before plants and animals, we find that the information content of prokaryotes is similar to plants and animals at the present day. This information-based approach offers a new way to quantify anthropogenic and natural processes in the biosphere and its information diversity over time.

How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review

Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings.

Neuroaesthetics and the Trouble with Beauty

The famous nineteenth-century psychophysicist Gustav Fechner was also a poet and art critic. Armed with the tools of science, Fechner sought to reconcile his various interests. He would doubtless be interested by technological developments in neuroscience that have revealed the operations of neurons at cellular resolution and have enabled us to peer almost unnoticed into each other’s working brains.

How Bitter Medicine Could Clear Up Asthma

Airway obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cause the airways to narrow and make it difficult to breathe. Broncodilators are used to treat these conditions, but they often don’t work in severe cases and can cause serious side effects, such as abnormal heart rhythms and increased blood pressure.

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