Environmental Sciences

Proboscidean Mitogenomics: Chronology and Mode of Elephant Evolution Using Mastodon as Outgroup

An accurate and well-supported phylogeny is the basis for understanding the evolution of species. With the appropriate and adequate amount of data, it is possible not only to determine relationships among species, but also to date divergence events between lineages. In turn, divergence events can be correlated to environmental changes recorded in the fossil record to help understand mechanisms driving evolution.

Protecting the Homer Spit

The Homer Spit contributes to the community’s economic, social, and environmental value. Economically it is the business center of our tourism industry. Socially it holds much history of the town and contains the harbor. Environmentally, it is a key habitat for many marine species. Identifying the risk components on the spit can be daunting.

Microtubules in Bacteria: Ancient Tubulins Build a Five-Protofilament Homolog of the Eukaryotic Cytoskeleton

Microtubules play crucial roles in cytokinesis, transport, and motility, and are therefore superb targets for anti-cancer drugs. All tubulins evolved from a common ancestor they share with the distantly related bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, but while eukaryotic tubulins evolved into highly conserved microtubule-forming heterodimers, bacterial FtsZ presumably continued to function as single homopolymeric protofilaments as it does today

Algal Populations as an Indicator of a Shifting Arctic Ecosystem

Coastlines all around the world are subject to rising sea level. Homes, livelihoods, and industries are being washed away by ever-warming seawater. The exponential rise in greenhouse gas output contributes to an undeniable rise in worldwide temperatures and melting arctic sea ice. The sea ice model suggests a loss of multiyear ice by the year 2042.

HIV Treatment as Prevention: Modelling the Cost of Antiretroviral Treatment—State of the Art and Future Directions

Policy discussions about the feasibility of massively scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce HIV transmission and incidence hinge on accurately projecting the cost of such scale-up in comparison to the benefits from reduced HIV incidence and mortality. We review the available literature on modelled estimates of the cost of providing ART to different populations around the world, and suggest alternative methods of characterising cost when modelling several decades into the future

The Comprehensive Management of Chinook Salmon in Campbell Creek Estuary

The focal point of our efforts is the Campbell Creek Estuary in Anchorage, Alaska, and the Chinook salmon within it. Campbell Creek Estuary is an ecologically diverse area in which numerous natural processes occur and serve as a bio-filter for the more populated areas of Anchorage (Municipality of Anchorage 2010).

Gut Microbiota Is a Key Modulator of Insulin Resistance in TLR 2 Knockout Mice

Environmental factors and host genetics interact to control the gut microbiota, which may have a role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. TLR2-deficient mice, under germ-free conditions, are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance. It is possible that the presence of gut microbiota could reverse the phenotype of an animal, inducing insulin resistance in an animal genetically determined to have increased insulin sensitivity, such as the TLR2 KO mice.

Planning for Population Growth to Manage Estuarine Wetlands

Residential development is the most important challenge facing our community and the coastal ecosystem supporting that community. The Matanuska Susitna Borough (MSB) is the fastest growing community in Alaska, with a population increase of almost 50% in the last 10 years.

Fusion of Protein Aggregates Facilitates Asymmetric Damage Segregation

Asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins at cell division generates a cell that retains damage and a clean cell that supports population survival. In cells that divide asymmetrically, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, segregation of damaged proteins is achieved by retention and active transport. We have previously shown that in the symmetrically dividing Schizosaccharomyces pombe there is a transition between symmetric and asymmetric segregation of damaged proteins.

Spontaneous mutation rate is a plastic trait associated with population density across domains of life

The probability of spontaneous genetic mutations occurring during replication evolves among organisms. This mutation rate can also vary at a particular site in a particular genotype, dependent upon the environment.

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