Mathematics

Increasing Efficiency of Preclinical Research By Group Sequential Designs

Group sizes in preclinical research are seldom informed by statistical power considerations but rather are chosen on practicability [1, 2]. Typical sample sizes are small, around n = 8 per group (http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/camarades/), and are only sufficient to detect relatively large sizes of effects. Consequently, true positives are often missed (false negatives), and many statistically significant findings are due to chance (false positives).

Sustained Armhook squid fishery

Abstract

The first Armhook squid (Berryteuthis magister) fishery permit in Alaska was issued this year, 2011. Market squid commercial fishery implementation has been sporadic in the past.

Since then, the presence of squid fisheries in Alaska has been sporadic. The recently implemented squid fishery in Ketchikan is largely unmanaged and without further research we won’t understand how squid will react to a consistent harvest.

Information required to implement an adequate management plan is missing in many cases. In order to put a decent plan into place, we would need more information about squid distribution, size, and behavior. Information regarding how squid population would react to environmental changes, such as rising ocean temperature and ocean acidification is needed. One possible way we could learn more about the distribution of squid is the use of acoustic assessment of squid stock. Using this method, sonar would be used to great effect to locate and document specific squid species.

Currently, atmospheric CO2 content is rising at ~0.5% per year, and pH content of the world ocean is falling. It is projected to fall between 0.3 and 0.4 pH units by the end of the century. It has been suggested that this will likely result in a rise in squid populations in Alaska (Fabry et al, 2007).

Introduction

In 2011, the first commercial permit in Southeast Alaska for the Armhook squid (Berryteuthis magister) (figure 1) was issued to fishermen outside of Ketchikan. Several permits have been issued in similar areas for the market squid (Loligo opalescens) but there has not been a consistent fishery or catch. Although the squid fishery in Alaska is just emerging it has been a consistent and successful fishery in California for over 100 years, with general increase in landings per vessel over the past 10 years (figure 2). We believe, with additional research and knowledge about squid behavior, that a successful fishery could also be implemented in Alaska. Although California has a productive fishery, there is a wide range of research needed before a large scale Alaskan fishery can be put in place. For example, much remains unknown about their diet, distribution, and overall effects on the SoutheastAlaska ecosystem. The rising ocean temperature and ocean acidification could lead to a rising squid population in Alaska. This will happen as squid migrate north in search of cooler waters.

In order to develop a stable fishery in Southeast Alaska, we need to look further into the research that California used to in managing their fishery. Such as, what boats were used? Were divers deployed? And what traps were set? By looking at California’s fishery, we can improve our own by learning from their advances and their mistakes.

To propose that there could be a consistent fishery in Southeast Alaska, we have to analyze California’s increase and Japan’s decrease in fishery income. When comparing Japan’s fishery and California’s the differences are substantial. Japan used their resources to the point where their fishery collapsed, whereas California has succeeded in maintaining a sustainable fishery.

Squid biology

Armhook squid can live up to 4 years. spending most of their life in a juvenile phase, maturing late in life, spawning once and then dying. Male armhook squid grow slower, but reach maturation earlier than their female counter parts (Ormseth and Spital, 2010)

Armhook squid can be found from southern Japan, throughout the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, Gulf of Alaska and extend south to the U.S. West coast as far as southern Oregon. (Roper et al. 1984). The distribution of squid bycatch in AK from pelagic and benthic fisheries mostly occur along the shelf break and in deeper waters and on the south end of Kodiak Island (figure 3). There are many species of marine life in these areas which rely on squid as prey as well as a wide variety of species consumed by the squid themselves.

The primary predators of squid in the Gulf of Alaska are salmon, accounting for about half of squid mortality. Another 14% can be attributed to marine mammals such as sperm whales. Combined, the primary groundfish predators of squid (sablefish, pollock, and grenadiers) account for another 10%. A detailed view of squid mortality sources can be seen in figure 4 (Ormseth and Spital, 2010).

The diet of squid in the Gulf of Alaska is dominated by pelagic zooplankton, such as euphausiids and copepods (figure 5). Based on this assessment, squid can be estimated at consuming one to five million metric tons of zooplankton annually. Fish are also thought to account for a small portion of their diet. As much as one million metric tons are consumed annually. Armhook squid eat larger prey such as this by ripping them apart with their beak while shoving it into their mouths with their 8 arms. Their beak, which is used for feeding is very sharp and tough, made out of chitin, the same material as human fingernails. Indigestible beaks have been found in the stomachs of captured whales.

The Armhook squid (Berryteuthis anonychus) is most commonly found in subarctic waters in the north pacific, especially off the continental shelf. They feed off of copepods most often. Since we know that’s what they are eating, we have to be careful on the increasing numbers of squid because of the direct competition between juvenile salmon for food. Which as

a result could damage the amount of salmon we would have in Alaska and their fisheries. We can also include since the copepods are highly seasonal in the spring and all through late summer,

that the Armhook squid would have an abundance of prey to feed on. Although coming into the fall and through the winter the copepods start to die off and there is a great amount of decrease in their numbers. We can imagine that the Armhook squid will either move somewhere else for the seasonal decrease or die off as well. Research on the subject of squid migration and foraging behavior is needed in order to know how the Armhook squid is directly affected.

Research needed

The more we look into the possibility of a sustainable Armhook squid fishery, the more research is needed. From basic knowledge regarding their diet and general distribution, to more comprehensive information regarding how they would react to rising ocean temperature and increasing ocean acidification, much is still unknown.

Perhaps the most basic pieces of information needed are the ones regarding basic biology and ecosystem interaction of the squids in question. In order to be confident in knowing how implementing a fishery for these squid, one would need to know what other species would be affected when the population of Armhook squid is reduced in the region of the ocean in question.

One would also need to know what species are being affected, and what their current populations are, as well as what their future populations are likely to be. The reproduction rate of the Armhook squid still needs to be researched. Before harvesting the Armhook squid knowing how they would react to the impact on their population would need to be known.

Based on what we have observed with other squid species, we can safely assume that the Armhook squid will adapt fairly well to rising ocean temperature and increased ocean CO2 levels. Knowing how their prey species will adapt is still needed. If their prey species is going to be significantly negatively affected one would need to be more conservative in how they interact with the squid population.

We have found that the presence of Armhook squid is most prevalent in subarctic waters in the north Pacific. More specifically than that, however, not much is known, and we have little information about their migratory patterns. Costs in finding this information could be reduced by including input from fishermen happening upon these squid. Estimating populations and distributions of squid using sonar has also been found plausible. This information is needed in implementing a fishery the area.

Acoustic Assessment of squid

A significant amount of information would need to be collected if acoustic assessment is to be put into place. Population densities would need to be collected from many different locations, and at varied distances from the shore. Additionally, because squid migrate vertically in the water column throughout the day, data would have to be collected from varied depths, and at regular intervals throughout the day.

Acoustic assessment and the use of sonar technology could be used to estimate squid stock populations. The main instrument used is the echo-sounder, which consists of the transmitter, the transducer, the receiver, and the display. The transducer converts a voltage pulse produced by the transmitter into a pulse of sound. The pulses of sound travel through the water and bounce off objects, returning to the transducer. These echoes are received by transducer and are converted back into electrical pulses. These can then be seen on the display. This data can beconverted into a graphical format to easily present the information (figure 6) (Starr and Thorne, 1998).

Foreseeable problems in implementing this technology relate to its inability to return trustworthy information from near bottom and near surface waters. Use of acoustic assessment may also be limited in shallow waters. The sea surface and bottom are both strong reflectors of acoustic energy, and reading from near the surface would be influenced by wave shape and by movement of the boat carrying the equipment (Starr and Thorne, 1998).

The equipment needed for acoustic assessment of squid populations would extend past the equipment described above. For example, boats would be necessary to carry out usage of this equipment. However, it is possible that costs could be reduced if commercial fishing boats are equipped with this technology, and scientist are allowed to collect data during already scheduled trips.

The usability and convenience of using acoustic assessment is evident, but viability of using sonar to estimate squid populations may still seem questionable. However using this method has shown to be surprisingly accurate. By classifying signal patterns, accuracy in distinguishing between specific species can be increased. Using pattern classifiers, this technology has been proved to be more accurate in identification between cod capelin and mackerel than local fishermen of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It can also distinguish between specific species of squid. Presumably, the technology could be optimized for similar use with squid. This method also allows for the rapid survey of large areas and process large amounts of information in real time. (Starr and Thorne, 1998)

The essential position of squid within North Pacific pelagic ecosystems, combined with the limited knowledge of the abundance, distribution, and biology of many squid species in the area, make squid a good candidate for management distinct from that applied to other species (Ormseth and Spital, 2010)

Effects of Climate Change

Earth’s atmospheric CO2 concentration is rising today at a rate of ~0.5% year-1, and over the last 250 years CO2 levels have risen almost 40%. The world ocean’s pH level is projected to fall between 0.3 and 0.4 pH units by the end of the century. It is clear that Earth’s rising atmospheric CO2 levels and rising ocean acidification have affected many ecosystems world- wide. Ocean acidification is thought to depress metabolic rates by 31% and activity levels by

45% in the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Fabry et al, 2007). However, much is still unknown about the effects of ocean acidification and rising ocean temperatures on the Armhook, or Commander squid Berryteuthis magister or the Market squid Loligo opalescens. Surprisingly, there is reason to believe that rising ocean temperature could be beneficial to squid in general, because of their fast growth rates, rapid rates of turnover at the population level. This allows them to respond very quickly to environmental changes. However information of this nature on the Armhook and market squid specifically is lacking. In order to formulate a management plan which one could be at all confident in implementing, we would need a significant amount of

additional information on the Armhook squid and how they will react to further changes in ocean acidity and temperature. Would the population of these squids increase in Alaska with continued ocean acidification, and if so how would it affect the size and/or well-being of the individual and the ecosystem?

Management Plan

In our fishery, the maximum allowable harvest (MAH) would be 10 tons, or 4,000 individual squid at 5 pounds. Permits would be issued for 2,000 pounds until the MAH was reached. If someone harvested 2,000 pounds, they would be allowed another permit until the MAH was reached. Even if this plan was successful, however, further research and a more detailed management plan would be necessary before a possible increase in harvest levels (Walker, pers. comm. 2011). As with most management plans, it would be reevaluated and adjusted each year as continued research brings new information on the overall impacts and implications of the fishery on Southeast Alaska.

Conclusion

Several attempts have been made to start a squid fishery is Southeast Alaska. While none of them have been successful, personal use catch is becoming more common in that area, and the market value of squid is rising. There are already squid fisheries present in the western pacific and Russia, and other nations have already fished successfully in Alaskan waters. Squid are also caught as bycatch in large numbers in the Pollock trawl fishery.

As the world ocean’s CO2 levels and temperatures continue to increase, squid may be forced to move to more temperate and/or subarctic waters. This would likely increase the squid population in Alaska. Rising squid populations could change the ecosystem dynamics, this could warrant a more rigorous fishery management plan. Not much is known about the squid population in Southeast Alaska, mainly due to the absence of a major bottom fishery, where most of the information has come from. Therefore, Fish and Game surveys would be focused there, while data from other parts of the state would come more heavily from observations made about fishery bycatch.

References

  1. Doney, S. C., Fabry, V. J., & Feely, R. A. (2009). Ocean acidification: The other CO(2) problem. Annual Review of Marine Science, 1(3), 169-192.
  2. Fabry, V. J., Seibel, B. A., Feely, R. A., and Orr, J. C. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 414–432.
  3. Jefferts, K., Burczynski, J., & Pearcy, W. G. (2011). Acoustical assessment of squid (Loligo opalescens) off the central Oregon coast [Abstract]. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 44(6). doi: 10.1139/f87-149
  4. Kubodera, Tsunemi. 2009. Berryteuthis magister (Berry, 1913). Commander squid. Version 12
  5. August 2009. http://tolweb.org/Berryteuthis_magister/26875/2009.08.12 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org
  6. Ormseth, Olav & Spital, Cliff. 2010. Gulf of Alaska Squids. National Marine Fisheries Science Center. 18a. 663-694.
  7. Pecl, G., & Jackson, G. 2008. The potential impacts of climate change on inshore squid: biology, ecology and fisheries. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 18(4), 373-385. doi: 10.1007/s11160-007-9077-3
  8. Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney, and C.E. Nauen. 1984. FAO Species Catalogue Vol. 3, Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Vol 3.
  9. Starr, R.M. and R.E. Thorne. 1998. Acoustic assessment of squid stocks. pp. 181-198 in: P.G.
  10. Rodhouse, E.G. Dawe, and R.K. O’Dor (eds.): Squid recruitment dynamics: the genus Illex as a model, the commercial Illex species and influences on variability. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No. 376. Rome, Italy.
  11. State of California Resources Agency. Department of Fish and Game (Marine Region). 2005.
  12. Final Market Squid Fishery Management Plan. Los Alamitos, CA.
  13. Walker, Scott. 2011. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Commercial Fisheries Dept. 2030 Sea Level Dr #205, Ketchikan, AK 99901. (907)225-5195

 

Flight Speeds among Bird Species: Allometric and Phylogenetic Effects

A full evaluation of the applicability of aerodynamic scaling rules must be based, not on theoretically derived speeds, but on empirical measurements of airspeeds of a wide variety of bird species in natural cruising flight. Here, we present tracking radar measurements of flight speeds of 138 species from six main monophyletic groups, which were analysed in relation to biometry (m, S, and wingspan b) and evolutionary origin (as reflected by phylogenetic group).

Developing a New Search for Randomly Accessible Data

There are only two widely-used searches for randomly accessible data: linear search and binary search. I developed and created a new search and tested it against binary search, linear search, and variations of them.

Improving Status Quo Rationale to Improve Middle Income Households

This study demonstrates correlation between economic trends and changes in markets. They also show that CAPE downside management is effective in combination with a delay and dynamic asset allocation.

Design Principles of the Yeast G1/S Switch

A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity.

A New Discrete Dynamic Model of ABA-Induced Stomatal Closure Predicts Key Feedback Loops

The epidermes of leaves and other aerial plant parts have natural openings known as stomata. Stomata are the entry and exit points where gas exchange, particularly CO2 uptake for photosynthesis and O2 and water vapor diffusion from the leaf interior to the atmosphere, takes place. Each stomate is surrounded by a pair of guard cells that modulate stomatal apertures in response to endogenous water status, to multiple phytohormones, and to many environmental signals such as light and CO2 [1–4].

A Mechanism for the Cortical Computation of Hierarchical Linguistic Structure

Detecting relevant signals in the environment is a crucial function in biological systems. For humans, language is a critical, if not the defining, species-specific environmental signal to detect. As such, it is not surprising that the human auditory system is specialised for speech processing [e.g., 1,2].

Tidal Power Potential in the Remote Aleutian Islands Region

Abstract

The changes in the global ocean are directly tied to the changes in the environment as a whole, many of which are the result of increased consumption of fossil fuels for power generation and transportation. In this paper, we assess the potential of the Aleutian Islands as a location for tidal power, a viable solution to the long-standing issue of high energy costs caused by the use of diesel fuel for the power generation. The towns and villages of the Aleutian Islands, including False Pass and Unalaska, which are highlighted in this paper, are reliant on diesel power, which must be transported by barge to their communities, resulting in a cost of power that is significantly higher than the average costs for Alaska and the United States. Tidal power has the potential to provide sustainable power to these communities, while lowering the extreme cost of living currently endured by the region’s residents. The method on which we focus, in-stream tidal power generation, captures the kinetic energy of tidal currents with turbines installed directly on the seabed, eliminating disturbance of the surrounding ecosystems caused by systems requiring damming. However, further research is needed to determine the exact ecological impacts before a project could be permitted

and implemented. A proposed project at False Pass can be used as a reference to identify other sites for tidal power, such as Unalaska, the largest town in the region. Despite the large investment required to put tidal power generation in place, tidal power is economically feasible in the Aleutians as a long-term solution due to the lower recurring costs. Initial costs, including purchasing and installing the turbines, could be shouldered by for-profit or non-profit Alaska Native organizations that strive to protect traditional Native culture, which is threatened by the high living costs that drive individuals away from villages. Tidal power and other alternative energy sources will improve the quality of life of residents of the Aleutian Islands, protect the cultural heritage of Alaska Natives, and reduce the harm to the environment and the oceans caused by the use and transportation of fossil fuels for power generation.

I. Introduction

The global dependence on fossil fuels and non-renewable resources poses a serious threat to the ocean and the ecosystems it supports. Pollution from shipping and spills, and the acidification of the ocean due to an increase of CO2 in the atmosphere are all consequences of energy consumption through unsustainable means. Use of alternative energy sources is one key step towards the prevention of continued ocean disturbance. The communities of the Aleutian Islands represent a region where alternatives for fossil fuels are especially needed. Currently, all Aleutian cities and villages are dependent on diesel and other fossil fuels for heat and power for their communities (James Fitch, pers. comm.). However, many of these towns have the potential for alternative energy that can reduce their cost of living and impact on the environment.

The high cost of living in the small villages of Alaska is a concern to those interested in cultural heritage and the preservation of the traditional Alaska Native way of life, as inhabitants of small villages are pressured to leave by unbearably high energy costs and the limited economy within rural villages. Individuals in rural areas of Alaska report that up to half of their monthly income goes to energy costs and heating their home. Dependence on fossil fuels is not only environmentally unsustainable; it is also expensive to the point of crippling their way of life (http://energy.gov/article s/helping-alaska-native- communities-reduce-their-energy-costs).

We propose that tidal power is a means by which clean, sustainable energy can be provided to small communities in the Aleutians. Tidal power generation reduces power costs, eliminates the need to transport fossil fuels for power generation and the associated potential for environmentally damaging spills, and does not contribute to the environmental damage of burning fossil fuels, such as ocean acidification. One location in the Aleutians that has been previously identified as a potential site for tidal energy is False Pass, a town of roughly thirty-five people on Isanotski Strait (Figure 1) (Doug Johnson, pers. comm., http://factfinder2.census. gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml). Using False Pass as a reference, we can identify other sites in Alaska that might benefit from tidal power, such as Unalaska, the largest community in the Aleutians, with the largest power demand and fossil fuel consumption

Figure 1. Location and tidal power potential of False Pass and Unalaska. Created using map data from

Google Earth (http://google.com/earth/) and Haas et al. (http://www.tidalstreampower.gatech.edu/).

II. The Aleutian Islands

The Aleutian Island chain, an island arc in Southwest Alaska spanning over 1,000 miles, was formed by the ongoing subduction of the Pacific plate under the North American plate, and is one of the most geologically active island chains in the world. It is composed of 14 large and approximately 55 small islands, as well as hundreds of small islets. The maritime climate is cool, wet, and windy, with frequent storms, especially in the winter (Hunt, 2005).

Three ocean currents flow past the Aleutians: The Alaska Coastal Current, the Alaskan Stream, and the Aleutian North Slope Current (Figure 2). The Alaska Coastal Current, driven by winds and freshwater input, and the Alaskan Stream, a western boundary current of the North Pacific sub-Arctic gyre, both flow westward on the south side of the islands. The Aleutian North Slope Current flows eastward on the

north side of the archipelago. The Alaska Coastal Current splits at Unimak Pass; the less saline, inshore portion turns northward, while the saltier offshore portion continues west to Samalga Pass, where it joins the Aleutian North Slope Current. West of Samalga Pass, the Alaskan Stream is the predominant current south of the archipelago. The differences in source water result in different physical and chemical conditions in the passes between the islands. The flow of water through the passes is dominated by the tides. In smaller, shallower passes, the tidal currents mix the entire water column. In larger passes, there is a two-way flow, to the south on the west side of the pass and northward on the east side. However, in all of the passes except Kamchatka Strait, net water flow is to the north (Hunt, 2005). In addition, the Islands of the Aleutian region all experience mixed tides, which are predominantly semidiurnal (Huang et al., 2011).

Figure 2. Ocean currents in the Aleutian region (based on Stabneo et al., 2005).

III. The People of the Aleutians

The Aleutian region is sparsely populated, with only 8,702 residents reported in the 2010 census (http:// factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml). The Aleut, also called Unangan, are indigenous to the Aleutians, and have inhabited the area for 6,000 years, coming as part of a second wave of migration, likely traveling by boat rather than over the Bering land bridge. The Aleut people traditionally lived in small villages, and subsisted primarily on sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) and various species of whale. The extreme lack of wood on the islands led to innovations and lifestyle changes including eating raw food and living in partially subterranean homes with grass roofs (Veltre and Veltre, 1982). Traditional Aleut values include respect for the Creator, knowledge of one’s family and ancestors, regard for the land and sea, and maintenance of balance in life (http://www.firstalaskans.org/index.cfm?section=Census– Information-Center&page=Regional-Fact-Sheets&viewpost=2&ContentId=602).

The Russians were the first people from the old world to visit the Aleutians, in 1741. They became interested in the islands for the valuable fur of seals and sea otters (Enhydra lutris). The Aleut people were forced to hunt fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and sea otters under the rule of the promyshlenniki, the Russian fur traders. The Russian government’s limited control over the traders resulted in a dramatic decline in the Native population until the creation of the Russian-American Company in 1799. The traditional way of life was entirely disrupted by 1830 despite attempts to salvage it (Haycox and Mangusso, 1996).

Caucasian settlers in the Aleutians were scarce, even after Alaska was purchased by the United States in 1867. The population was primarily Native until the beginning of World War II, when military bases were constructed throughout the Aleutians to guard against a potential attack by the Japanese, which did occur on Adak and Attu Islands. In addition to military expansion, the federal government evacuated most of the Natives to Southeast Alaska, where many died due to poor living conditions in the internment camps and canneries where they were housed. Upon returning to their homes, many Aleuts were shocked to find their houses and churches had been destroyed or ransacked by soldiers (Haycox and Mangusso, 1996).

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 created for-profit Native corporations on regional and local levels. Twelve regional corporations were each granted a portion of almost one billion dollars and forty million acres of land, to be utilized in a manner most beneficial to the shareholders of each corporation, the indigenous peoples of the area (http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Curriculum/ANCSA/ane.html). The Aleut Corporation, the regional corporation for the Aleutian region, last reported a net income of over twenty million dollars, before taxes, in 2010, and experienced growth between 2008 and 2010, despite the nationwide recession (http://www.aleutcorp.com/images/stories/11263%20aleut2010annualreport_lowres).

Today, much of the non-Aleut population throughout the Aleutians, especially within the city of Unalaska, is of Asian descent, primarily because Asian workers were recruited for jobs in fish-processing plants. According to the 2010 census, the population of Unalaska is 30.6% Caucasian, 31.4% Asian, 19.9% American Indian and Alaska Native, and the remaining portion is divided between people of multiple races and other categories (http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/c ommunity_facts.xhtml).

IV. Tidal Power

Tidal power is an alternative energy source that uses the kinetic energy from the tidal motion of seawater to generate power. Tidal power is regarded as a clean energy source; the power generation methods are sustainable and do not cause lasting damage to the environment (Polagye et al., 2011). Tidal power is also reliable and predictable, as unlike wind or solar, the tidal pattern of an area is regular and does not vary greatly with weather or other variables. In this paper, we focus on in-stream or tidal current turbines, as opposed to tidal barrages. Tidal barrages are large dam structures that block the entrance to an estuary or other partially-enclosed area, and employ turbines much like hydroelectric dams to harness the energy of the tidal outflow. Unlike hydroelectric dams, tidal barrages allow water to flow in both directions to create a power potential; however, energy is generated only during ebb tides. Tidal barrages often harness a greater amount of energy than in-stream turbines, but result in much greater environmental damage because of the damming required to generate power. Barrages have been found to change the salinity ranges of estuaries, and also reduce the amount of intertidal habitat available to organisms and change both bottom water properties and current patterns within and outside the enclosed area (Pelc and Fujita, 2002).

In-stream turbines generate electricity as tidal currents pass through them in a manner similar to the method of generating power from wind energy. The turbines are installed on the seafloor, and generate energy from currents and tidal movement, without blocking an estuary mouth or otherwise altering the surrounding region. Narrow straits produce swift currents because of the large volumes of water moving between landmasses, and therefore create the most desirable locations for in-stream tidal generation. Many such locations with strong currents exist, including those in the Aleutian Islands (O’Rourke et al., 2010).

The amount of power generated is dependent on the area of water intercepted by the device, the cube of the water velocity, and how efficient the device is at converting the kinetic energy into electrical energy. The power generated by the turbine can be expressed in the equation P=(1/2)nV3Ae, where P is the power generated by the turbine, n is the density of the seawater , v is the velocity of the tidal current, A is the area of water of water intercepted by the device, and e is the efficiency of the device. The efficiency and cross- sectional area change for turbines designed by different companies (Polagye, 2010).

The proposed project at False Pass would use the TidGen Power System (Figure 3), an in-stream turbine system designed by Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC). This system was implemented in the first commercial tidal power operation connected to a local utility grid in North America. The installation of one TidGen system in Cobscook Bay, Maine, in 2012, has generated enough energy to power 25 to 30 homes, and the project will be expanded over the next three years to generate a total of 5 megawatts, enough for up to 300 residences or businesses (http://science.energy.gov/sbir/highlights/2013/sbir-2013-01-e/).

Throughout this paper, we refer specifically to the TidGen system, not because it is definitively the best or most cost-effective method of tidal power generation available, but because the TidGen system is the only method that has been seriously proposed so far in the Aleutians, and is the only system that currently operates within the United States. Other devices and implements for in-stream tidal generation exist, and may be more efficient or economically viable than ORPC’s TidGen system, however, none of these options have been presented within the Aleutian region thus far.

Because in-stream turbine installation does not require the damming or other blocking of estuaries or other marine areas, sediment disturbance or current pattern changes are typically not significant concerns (Pelc and Fujita, 2002). Frid et al. (2011) indicate that the sediment disturbance caused by the installation of turbines has not posed any significant threat, as most areas with enough tidal power potential to support a tidal generator have strong enough currents that the sediment is disturbed naturally more than by the turbines. However, this effect may not be negated by natural currents as the number and size of turbines in an area is increased. The sediment disturbance is a threat to benthic organisms that rely on nutrients from and the habitat of ocean floor sediments, potentially resulting in a change in benthic community compositions if sediment disturbance is prolonged (Polagye, 2010).

Figure 3. The TidGen Power System. Courtesy of Ocean Renewable Power Company.

The primary concern arising from the installation of in-stream turbines is the potential for negative effects on marine organisms. Conclusions on the potential for interactions between nekton and in-stream turbines are mixed. Reports indicate high mortality rates from direct contact between fish and turbines, but other sources have also reported that small to medium fish are often able to swim through turbines and remain unharmed (Frid et al., 2011). Additional studies have reported that marine mammals and diving birds generally avoid rotors, the chances of them being hit by a blade are low, and any contact that were to occur would be glancing and not seriously harmful (Fraenkel, 2006). Reports on the TidGen system installed in Maine suggest the turbines do not have negative effects on marine life, but each site is unique, so these findings may not be generally applicable. Because False Pass and Unalaska both have marine mammals and endangered species, including Steller sea lions, gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus), humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), killer whales (Orcinus orca), we feel that further research and monitoring of the interactions between marine mammals and in-stream turbines would need to be, and should be, conducted.

While other renewable sources have been considered as potentials for reducing energy costs in the Aleutians, tidal power stands out primarily because of its reliability (Bruce Wright, pers. comm.). Unlike wind and solar power, tidal power is not dependent on the weather conditions and can operate at all times of the day, excepting the period of time when the area experiences slack tide. The two locations highlighted in this paper do not have sea ice present at any time of year, so tidal power turbines would be operable throughout the winter months (Doug Johnson, pers. comm.).

V. False Pass

False Pass is a small community located on the eastern shore of Unimak Island with a population of approximately 35 individuals. The city is a port on Isanotski Strait, which is used by thousands of vessels traveling between the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea every year. The location was identified as a potential tidal power site by local mariners, who observed an exceptionally high current velocity, and in the summer of 2013 a study was conducted by ORPC to confirm the tidal potential that had been reported anecdotally (ftp://ftp.aidea.org/White-McMahon/862False%20Pass%20Tidal%20Energy%20Study/False%20Pass%20Tidal%20RE%20Rd%20V%20App.pdf). Funding for the study was provided by the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA), the tribal organization of Alaska’s Aleut peoples, through a tribal energy grant from the US Department of Energy (http://www.uaf.edu/files/acep/2013_REC_False%20Pass%20Assessment_Monty%20Worthington.pdf). ORPC hopes to have the TidGen turbine unit in the water in the fall of 2014, however APIA doesn’t believe the permitting process will be completed by that date (Bruce Wright, pers. comm.). Additional, extensive bathymetric surveys are needed before this can occur. Throughout the process, ORPC will be monitoring in conjunction with the relevant agencies for any environmental impacts that might occur. Underwater video monitoring will be used to determine safe placement for the turbine (Doug Johnson, pers. comm.).

Currently, the city of False Pass generates electricity by burning diesel fuel. The proposed single TidGen unit at False Pass would supply at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the community; enough power to save 37,000 gallons of diesel fuel annually. It would also cut the high energy costs caused by the high cost of fuel and the expense of transporting it (City of False Pass Electric Utility, 2011). The residents of False Pass pay between 15 and 42 cents per kWh for electricity, depending on whether they receive the Power Cost Equalization subsidy from the State of Alaska. The Power Cost Equalization program lowers the cost of energy for residents of rural communities where energy costs are potentially as high as three to five times the statewide average (http://www.akenergyauthority.org/PDF%20files/PCEProgramGuide_Augu st13.pdf). This program relies on appropriations from the Alaska State Legislature and the expenditures for the 2012 fiscal year – the most recent data available – totaled $39.1 million (http://www.akenergyauthority. org/PDF%20files/pcereports%5CFY12statisticalrptbyuty.pdf). Residents of the City of Unalaska received $1,065,287 of the subsidies, while residents of the City of False Pass received $22,176 (Alaska Energy Authority, 2013). Even with the subsidy, the cost of electricity is much higher than the national average of 12.51 cents per kWh. Electricity costs the City of False Pass $187,060 per year, and this is expected to increase as fuel prices continue to rise. In contrast, the estimated operating and maintenance costs for the TidGen system would be $35,750 per year, according to ORPC (ftp://ftp.aidea.org/White-McMahon/862False%20Pass%20Tidal%20Energy%20Study/False%20Pass%20Tidal%20RE%20Rd%20V%20App.pdf).

A challenge posed by the use of tides for power generation is their intermittent nature. Power can only be generated while water is flowing, either in or out. Slack water leaves a recurring gap in power output. ORPC is looking at several energy storage technologies for use at False Pass that would alleviate this issue. Batteries, particularly liquid metal ones, and compressed air are both possibilities for storage. The production of ammonia or hydrogen while the tide is flowing is an option, which would later be combusted to provide energy. Water could also be pumped into an elevated reservoir onshore to be used for traditional hydroelectric power generation during slack tides. Furthermore, constant power output over the period of the tide may not be necessary for False Pass. Much of the power usage in False Pass goes to the production of ice for use by local fish processors. By making additional ice when energy is available, it would be possible to reduce power demand when energy is scarce (Doug Johnson, pers. comm.).

VI. Unalaska

Unalaska is the largest community in the Aleutian Islands, with a population of 4,376 reported in the 2010 census (http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml). Like many towns in the Aleutians and other regions of Alaska, the population varies with the time of year and the profitability of the fisheries, sometimes reaching as high as ten thousand. Unalaska, along with all other communities in the Aleutians, relies on diesel generators for power. The municipal power utility provides power for the entirety

of the town except the four major fish processors, all of which have separate diesel generators. Alyeska Seafoods and Westward Seafoods share power generation of 6,200 kW for their Unalaska processing plants (Stuart Law, pers. comm.). Unisea Inc generates 7,000-8,000 kW during the peak fish processing season (February through March and September through December) and 2,000 kW throughout the off- season (Todd Shoup, pers. comm.). Bering Fisheries reports a 32 kW power generator, which is primarily used to make ice (Fred Cecena, pers. comm.). One small-scale fish processing plant, operated by Copper River Seafoods, relies on power provided by the city. The majority of the city’s power generation goes to the shipping industry, which is one of the largest components of Unalaska’s economy after commercial fishing. On average, the City of Unalaska generates 9,000 kW of power, and roughly 2,000 kW of that power goes to households, with the remainder going to various shipping companies (James Fitch, pers. comm.).

Power provided by the municipal electrical utility costs 51 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh). For the customers eligible for the Alaska Energy Authority’s Power Cost Equalization subsidy, the cost is reduced to roughly 27 cents per kWh (James Fitch, pers. Comm.). Residents of the City of Unalaska received $1,065,287 of the subsidies in 2012 (AEA, 2013). The cost is still greater than the state average of 18.71 cents per kWh, and significantly higher than the national average of 12.51 cents per kWh (http://www.eia.go v/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_5_6_a). Unalaska’s high cost of energy is attributed to both the rising cost of fuel and the cost of transportation (James Fitch, pers. comm.).

Three passes near Unalaska, including Unalga Pass, located between Unalaska and Unalga Islands approximately 20 km (13 mi) from the City of Unalaska over land, and Baby and Akutan Passes, located on the opposite side of the 7 km (4 mi) wide Unalga Island, have tidal power generation potentials of 75,000 kW, 26,000 kW, and 114,000 kW, respectively (http://www.google.com/earth/index.html, http://www.tidalstre ampower.gatech.edu/Final_Report_tidal_v2.pdf). The partial exploitation of the nearest, at Unalga Pass, would be sufficient to cover the power needs of the entire community of Unalaska, including the fish processors operating within the city. In conjunction with a switch from home heating oil to electric heating, the dependence of the community on transported fossil fuels would be greatly reduced.

Tidal potential in Unalaska was not studied by ORPC due to the perceived low current velocities in the area. With APIA, ORPC has also been investigating other kinds of renewable energy in the Aleutian Islands, including wave energy. ORPC is also looking at developing tidal power as an energy source in other areas of Alaska, including the south end of Prince of Wales Island (Doug Johnson, pers. comm.).

VII. Cobscook Bay: A Comparative Case Study

Cobscook Bay, part of the Bay of Fundy located near Eastport, Maine, was the site of the first grid- connected tidal power operation in North America when one of ORPC’s TidGen systems was installed in the summer of 2012. It currently generates enough energy to power 25 to 30 homes, and over the next three years, the project will expand to generate a total of 5 mW, enough to power up to 1,200 residences or businesses (Table 1) (http://science.energy.gov/sbir/highlights/2013/sbir-2013-01-e/).

The Cobscook Bay project received $10 million in funding from the U.S. Department of Energy for research and installation costs. Since 2007, the project has brought more than $21 million in revenue to Maine’s economy, including $5 million spent locally on several contractors and goods and services. Over 100 jobs are attributed to the project (http://science.energy.gov/sbir/highlights/2013/sbir-2013-01-e/).

In addition to the preliminary studies conducted during the development of the project, ORPC is facilitating ongoing monitoring of impacts to the local environment. They are assessing the physical environment, the benthic habitat, marine mammals, fish, and birds through several monitoring plans. So far, results indicate that the TidGen system in Cobscook Bay does not have any significant adverse effects on the environment. However, data collection was difficult due to the highly dynamic environment of the bay and other circumstances. Benthic disturbance and biofouling were minimal. Observations of marine mammals indicate that there were no population or behavioral changes during construction, operation, and maintenance, and there is no evidence of any marine mammal strikes. Seabird populations and behaviors were not significantly affected . (http://www.orpc.co/permitting_doc/environmentalreport_Mar2013.pdf)

Table 1. Tidal power potentials of three locations

(http://www.tidalstreampower.gatech.edu/Final_Report_tidal_v2.pdf).

VII. Economics of Tidal Power

The greatest costs associated with tidal power are the initial startup costs, including the research and permitting process, and the acquisition and installation of the equipment required. In the case of Unalaska, additional funds would also be required for purchasing and installing power transmission cables to get the power from Unalga Pass to Unalaska. However, all of these costs are one-time occurrences, which would likely be incurred by one or more organizations, and slowly paid off by the consumers. The cost of power for the consumer after the switch to tidal power would be lower than the current cost, by a variable amount, depending on the cost of diesel at the time.

The project at Cobscook Bay, Maine cost approximately $15 million by the time the first turbine was installed in the water (http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/09/14/1st-tidal-power-delivered-to-us-power-grid-off-maine/). According to Bruce Wright, of the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association, the tidal power project at False Pass will cost on the order of $10 million (pers. comm.). As the technology develops, and the interactions between the turbines and animal species are better understood, the initial investment of turbine installation and research required should continue to decrease.

Outside of the cost and complexity of turbine installation for a project at Unalga Pass, the provision of power to Unalaska would be complicated by the need to transmit it over approximately 20 km (13 mi) of Unalaska Island (http://www.google.com/earth/index.html). The relatively large distance between the pass and the city would increase costs significantly. The cost of installation for a 69 kV overhead power transmission cable is approximately $285,000 per mile, leading to a total cost of over $3.7 million just for transportation of power (Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, 2011). This cost could potentially be higher, because of the cost of transportation of supplies to Unalaska and the additional costs related to the absence of roads, but at this time additional information is mot available. However, this cost, similar to the cost of procuring and installing the turbines, is a one-time expenditure.

Other cities in Alaska that rely on renewable power resources, such as Juneau, have similar systems with significant distances between the power generation site and the city. The Snettisham hydroelectric power plant, which provides the majority of power for the City and Borough of Juneau, is located 28 miles away from the city, power is transported by 44 miles of overhead and undersea power transmission cables that run through multiple avalanche chutes and under the Taku River (http://www.aelp.com/history/ electric.htm).

Table 2. Current energy costs and consumption of False Pass and Unalaska, compared to Alaska and nationwide averages.

  1. http://www.akenergyauthority.org/PDF%20files/pcereports%5CFY12
  2. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/annual/customersales-map3.cfm

The tidal power provided in Cobscook Bay costs customers $0.215 per kWh (https://bangordailynews.co m/2013/08/13/news/down-east/tidal-power-project-headed-for-next-stage/). If a similar price could be achieved in Unalaska, it would provide enormous cost savings to commercial entities that are not eligible for Power Cost Equalization. During times of peak power usage by the four fish processors, they would save an estimated $81,881 per day by using such tidal power (assuming similar generation costs, neglecting line loss, as those reported by the Alaska Energy Authority (http://www.akenergyauthority.org/PDF%20files/ pcereports/fy12statisticalrptcomt.pdf)). While residential customers covered by PCE might not see a significant short-term change, tidal power could keep down costs in the long term (Table 2). State oil production has been declining, and is expected to continue to do so. With it, the oil tax revenues that fund the state government, including the Power Cost Equalization Program, are declining (http://www.alaskanomics.com/ 2013/04/states-new-oil-production-forecast-model-less-rosy-too-early-to-tell- if-it-is-more-accurate.html).

As with other tidal power installations, one near Unalaska would require a mechanism to stabilize the power output and provide power during slack tides. As with the project at False Pass, additional research would need to be done into the benefits of various technologies. The production of extra ice for use by fish processors during slack tides could be one component of a more comprehensive solution, but it alone would not satisfy the needs of residential customers and other businesses. Such a solution should be developed in cooperation with the fish processors to better satisfy the power needs of the whole community.

VIII. Cultural Preservation

The rising cost of living in the Aleutians, driven by fuel prices and the dependence on diesel for energy generation, is one of many factors contributing to the decline off the Aleut culture. These factors cause small communities in rural Alaska to shrink and decay, and the cultural heritage diminishes as well. In a survey of people moving from rural Alaska, 65% of respondents replied that “nothing could make me return/village is dying,” (http://www.arlis.org/docs/vol1/B/237133779.pdf). Maintaining the traditional way of life in small villages is a necessary component of preserving Alaska Native cultural heritage, which includes subsistence, a strong sense of community, and ties to both family and one’s village.

One method of improving the quality of life in rural areas and lowering the cost of living is transitioning from diesel-generated power to cheaper, sustainable tidal power. This effort would result in a long-term decrease in energy costs to residences and businesses and prevent high living costs from driving residents away from village life. In addition, the construction required to install tidal generators and the associated infrastructure would bring skilled workers to the area, benefitting the local economy through increased demand for goods and services. Jobs maintaining the turbines and doing other work associated with the support of a tidal power system would help to replace the jobs lost from the transition to tidal power.

Tidal power has the potential to help preserve Native traditions and heritage by decreasing further emigration from villages due to extremely high living costs. As such, both non-profit and for-profit Native organizations, including APIA and the Aleut Corporation, should have a strong incentive to support and fund the development of tidal power in the region. APIA’s mission states that it exists as a non-profit corporation “to provide self-sufficiency and independence of the Unangan/Unangas by advocacy, training, technical assistance and economic enhancement; to assist in meeting the health, safety and well-being needs of each Unangan/Unangas community…” (http://www.apiai.com/about.asp?page=about). APIA has previously demonstrated its commitment to develop tidal power, as well as other renewable power opportunities in the Aleutian region, by funding a study of the potential for tidal power generation at False Pass, along with research into other possible energy sources, including solar, geothermal and wave energy technologies (Bruce Wright, pers. comm.). The use of tidal power, or other renewable energy sources, is consistent with traditional Aleut values, which include holding respect for the natural world (http://www.firstalaskans.org/ind ex.cfm?section=Census-Information-Center&page=Regional-Fact-Sheets&viewpost=2&ContentId=602). Decreasing the cost of electricity and therefore the overall cost of living in the Aleutians is a demonstrable economic enhancement and also contributes to meeting the well-being needs of the Unangan peoples.

Turbine operation and resultant power distribution at the False Pass project would likely be a cooperative effort by ORPC, APIA, and the False Pass Electric Utility, although details of ownership and each entity’s role in operation of the turbine has not yet been finalized (Bruce Wright, pers. comm.). A project at Unalga Pass, powering Unalaska, could be either wholly owned by the Unalaska Power Utility, with the TidGen system purchased from ORPC, or jointly owned by ORPC, Unalaska Power Utility, APIA, Ounalashka Corporation (the local for-profit Native corporation for Unalaska), Aleut Corporation (the for-profit Native corporation of the Aleutian region), a separate organization, or any combination of the above. Participation by Aleut Corporation would be a direct benefit to the Unangan peoples, of both Unalaska and other parts of Alaska, as the profit from selling power to the businesses and homes of Unalaska would be passed on to the shareholders of the corporation, the Aleut people. Involvement by Ounalashka Corporation would also benefit the indigenous peoples of Unalaska, but not of other communities in the Aleutians or other regions

of Alaska. Ounalashka Corporation’s mission states that it exists “[t]o continue as a prosperous corporation through excellence in education and management, to benefit Shareholders thereby strengthening Unangan culture, and to become the premier village corporation,” a mission that aligns with the goals of a tidal power project (http://www.ounalashka.com/about/). Ownership of the turbine by the Unalaska Power Utility would likely result in the lowest cost to the consumers, as the city generating a profit from the sale of power to individuals within Unalaska is unlikely. However, in the instance of the power utility owning and operating the turbines, the Aleut peoples wouldn’t receive monetary benefits from the energy sales through shareholder dividends. Any single entity or combination of entities owning and operating tidal power generation turbines in the Aleutians would be a benefit to the peoples there, through a significant reduction in energy costs and also potentially through dividends to Alaska Native shareholders.

IX. Conclusion

The use of tidal power and other renewable energy sources is essential in reducing of further damage to the environment as a whole, and the oceans specifically. The Aleutian Islands are well suited for the

development of tidal power due to the high current velocities in passes near communities that are currently utilizing unsustainable power generation sources. False Pass, a location previously established as a potential site for tidal power, should be used as a pilot project to test the feasibility and identify other areas in which tidal power could be developed, including other communities in the Aleutians such as Unalaska.

The benefits of tidal power far outweigh the nominal risks of ecosystem damage and the high costs of initial analysis and installation. However, to ensure the preservation of the Aleutian region’s unique ecosystem and the culture that depends on it, monitoring of the impacts of turbines on marine mammals, various species of fish, and benthic habitats is necessary. In addition to reducing CO2 emissions, from burning and transporting fossil fuels and lowering the potential for harmful spills, the development of alternative energy sources in the Aleutians would benefit its residents by reducing the high cost of living. This growing problem threatens the traditional way of life for Alaska Natives in small villages, therefore, transitioning to more sustainable and economically viable energy sources is a demonstrable benefit to the individuals of the Aleutians and the preservation of their cultural heritage. Further research should be conducted into specific locations within the Aleutians, including Unalga Pass, to determine feasibility of tidal power opportunities that have the potential to provide sustainable, cost-effective power for this region.

Works Cited 

  1. Alaska Electric Light and Power Company; Snettisham hydroelectric power plant. http://www.aelp.com/history/electric.html. 11/25/13. 
  2. Alaska Energy Authority; Power Cost Equalization program guide. http://www.akenergyauthority.org/ PDF%20files/PCEProgramGuide_August13.pdf. 11/17/13.
  3. Alaska Energy Authority; Power Cost Equalization program statistical data by community. http://www.akenergyauthority.org/PDF%20files/pcereports/fy12statisticalrptcomt.pdf. 11/17/13.
  4. Alaska Energy Authority; Statistical report of the Power Cost Equalization program. http://www.akenergyauthority.org/PDF%20files/pcereports%5CFY12statisticalrptbyuty.pdf. 11/17/13.
  5. Alaska Native Knowledge Network; the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act teacher’s guide. http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/Curriculum/ANCSA/ane.html. 11/17/2013.
  6. Alaskanomics; oil predictions for State of Alaska. http://www.alaskanomics.com/2013/04/states-new-oil- production-forecast-model-less-rosy-too-early-to-tell-if-it-is-more-accurate.html. 11/25/13.
  7. Aleut Corporation; 2010 annual report. http://www.aleutcorp.com/images/stories/11263%20aleut2010annualreport_lowres.pdf. 11/19/13
  8. Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association; to inform the public about the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association. http://www.apiai.com/about.asp?page=about. 11/16/2013.
  9. Bangor Daily News; tidal power project headed for next stage. https://bangordailynews.com/2013/08/13/new s/down-east/tidal-power-project-headed-for-next-stage/. 11/16/13.
  10. Cecena, Fred. Bering Fisheries, 146 Gillman Road, Dutch Harbor, AK 99692, 907-581-5900.
  11. City of False Pass Electric Utility; False Pass tidal energy study. ftp://ftp.aidea.org/White-McMahon/862False%20Pass%20Tidal%20Energy%20Study/False%20Pass%20Tidal%20RE%20Rd%20V%20
  12. App.pdf. 11/21/13.
  13. First Alaskans Institute; Culture of the Aleut. http://www.firstalaskans.org/index.cfm?section=Census
  14. Information-Center&page=Regional-Fact-Sheets&viewpost=2&ContentId=602. 11/15/13. Fitch, James. Unalaska Power Utility, PO Box 610, Unalaska, AK 99685, 907-581-1831.
  15. Fox News; Maine tidal power project. http://www.foxnews.com/us/2012/09/14/1st-tidal-power-delivered-to- us-power-grid-off-maine/. 11/25/13.
  16. Fraenkel, P. L. 2006. Tidal Current Energy Technologies. Ibis 148:145-151.
  17. Frid, C., E. Andronegi, D. Jochen, A. Judd, D. Rihan, S.I. Rogers, and E. Kenchington. 2011. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy energy generation devices. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 32:133-139.
  18. Georgia Institute of Technology; assessment of energy production potential from tidal streams in the United States. http://www.tidalstreampower.gatech.edu/Final_Report_tidal_v2.pdf. 10/22/13.
  19. Google; Google Earth 7.1: Unalaska and False Pass location data. http://www.google.com/earth/. 11/25/13. Haycox, S.W., and M.C. Mangusso. 1996. An Alaska Anthology: Interpreting the Past. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press. 447 pages.
  20. Huang, L, D. Wolcott, and H. Yang. 2011. Tidal Characteristics Along the Western and Northern Coasts of Alaska. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services.
  21. Hunt, G.L. Jr. and P.J. Stabeno. 2005. Oceanography and ecology of the Aleutian Archipelago: spatial and temporal variation. Fisheries Oceanography 14:292-306.
  22. Johnson, Doug. Ocean Renewable Power Company, 725 Christensen Drive, Suite 6 Anchorage, AK 99501, 907-250-7269.
  23. Law, Stuart. Alyeska Seafoods, Power Generation, 551 W Broadway Ave, Unalaska, AK 99685, 907-581-1211.
  24. Martin, S., M. Kilorin, and S. Colt. 2008 Fuel Costs, Migration, and Community Viability. University of Alaska Anchorage Institute of Social and Economic Research.
  25. Ocean Renewable Power Company; False Pass tidal and ocean current resource reconnaissance study. http://www.uaf.edu/files/acep/2013_REC_False%20Pass%20Assessment_Monty%20Worthington.pdf.
  26. Ocean Renewable Power Company; Environmental monitoring report. http://www.orpc.co/permitting_doc/ environmentalreport_Mar2013.pdf. 11/25/13.
  27. O’Rourke, F., F. Boyle, and A. Reynolds. Tidal Energy Update 2009. Applied Energy 28:398-409. Ounalashka Corporation; the mission of Ounalaska Corp. http://www.ounalashka.com/about/. 11/25/13. Pelc, R., and R.M. Fujita. 2002. Renewable energy from the ocean. Marine Policy 26:471-479.
  28. Polagye, B., B.V. Cleve, A. Copping, and K. Kirkendall. 2010. Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Development. NOAA Tech. Memo.
  29. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. 2011. Underground Electric Transmission Lines. http://psc.wi.gov/thelibrary/publications/electric/electric11.pdf. 11/21/13.
  30. Sepez, J. A., C.L. Tilt, H.M. Lazrus, and I. Vaccaro. 2005. Community Profiles for North Pacific Fisheries – Alaska. NOAA Tech. Memo.
  31. Shoup, Todd. Unisea Inc., P.O. Box 920008, Dutch Harbor, AK 99692-0008, 425-881-8181.
  32. Stabneo, P.J., G.L. Hunt, Jr., J.M. Napp, and J.D. Schumacher. 2005. Physical forcing of ecosystem dynamics on the Bering Sea Shelf. In the Sea, 14.
  33. United States Census Bureau; community facts for False Pass, AK and Unalaska, AK. http://factfinder2. census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/community_facts.xhtml. 11/09/2013.
  34. United States Department of Energy; helping Alaska Native communities reduce their energy costs. http://energy.gov/articles/helping-alaska-native-communities-reduce-their-energy-costs. 10/27/2013.
  35. United States Department of Energy; information about ORPC TidGen system. http://science.energy.gov/sbir/highlights/2013/sbir-2013-01-e/. 11/12/2013.
  36. United States Energy Information Administration; average electricity cost data. http://www.eia.gov/ electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_5_6_a. 10/09/2013.
  37. University of Alaska Anchorage Institute of Social and Economic Research; fuel costs, migration, and community viability. http://www.arlis.org/docs/vol1/B/237133779.pdf. 11/15/13.
  38. Veltre, D.W., and M.J. Veltre. 1982. Resource Utilization in Unalaska, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence.
  39. Worthington, M. 2013. False Pass Tidal and Ocean Current Resource Reconnaissance Study. Ocean Renewable Power Company.
  40. Wright, Bruce. Aleutian Pribilof Island Association, 1131 Airport Rd., Anchorage, AK 99518, 907-276-2700.

The Effects of Sea Ice Volume on Algae in the Chukchi Sea

Abstract

With the recent opening of the Northwest Passage above the Arctic Coast of the United States and Canada, increased ship traffic from shipping, research, and tourism will increase risk of ships running aground or becoming trapped within the ice in the Arctic Sea. We recognize this risk and propose that a heavy class be built for the United States Coast Guard, because our

current ice breaker fleet is small, consisting of only the medium icebreaker Healy and the recently refurbished heavy icebreaker Polar Star. A new icebreaker is necessary if the United States is to respond to emergencies in the Northwest Passage.

Introduction

In recent years, the sea ice in the Arctic has been receding. As of September 2012, the amount of sea ice in the Arctic in terms of thickness and extent was at an all-time low, dropping from 4.5 million square kilometers to 3.5 million (Figure 1). This change in melting sea ice presents both disadvantages and advantages to the territories around the area. There are multiple disadvantages of the decrease in Arctic sea ice, one being that as the Arctic Sea ice level drops, habitats for species also drop. However, the melting sea ice can provide benefits to many countries that have coastlines in the Arctic such as Russia, Canada, and the U.S. As the sea ice melts, many Arctic shipping routes open—one of which is known as the Northwest Passage (Figure 2; Roach). The Northwest Passage could increase shipping opportunities along Arctic coastlines and serve as a faster, more efficient route by which ships can travel.

Shipping and tourism vessels must be able to navigate shifting sea ice safely. However, on the fringes of the Arctic ice cap, there are many icebergs and ice floes that pose danger to these ships. The primary threat to ships is the mobile ice, which could cause these ships to become trapped. An icebreaker would be needed to provide service to ships in need.

An icebreaker is a ship with the ability to navigate icy waters and clear paths for other ships. They are fairly large ships, at around 400 feet from bow to stern (O’Rourke). Most icebreakers last around 30 years before being refurbished or decommissioned (O’Rourke). There are two different methods of breaking ice: simply running through it or backing and ramming. Backing and ramming is a technique in which the ship backs up and rams the ice to break thicker sheets. Icebreakers are expensive and uncommon, but essential for Arctic navigation.

For our project, we propose that an icebreaker be built for use by the U.S. Coast Guard. The State of Alaska has shown interest in helping to fund this project, but they will not be solely responsible for finances. It is possible that funding could be acquired from many different parties who would be interested in contributing to a new icebreaker if it would benefit them in their Arctic operations, as was done with the Sikuliaq (Castellini). The vessel will be designed to break at least six feet of ice continuously and can be in service for 250 days at minimum so as to maintain a presence in Arctic waters throughout the year. The ship proposed should be maintainable by a crew of about 130, the size of the crew on former heavy icebreakers (O’Rourke). These aspects would greatly increase the ability of the Coast Guard to monitor and keep safe the Northwest Passage.

Shipping

The Arctic sea ice is changing rapidly, and with this comes increased traffic through Arctic regions (DeMarban). Shipping vessels, tourism, oil drilling, and exploration of the Arctic all add to this traffic (Humpert. and Raspotnik). Given the estimated high number of vessels to be passing through the area, the ability to run an effective search-and-rescue mission is critical. Vessels can encounter problems such as icing from sea spray, getting stuck in sea ice, and iceberg collisions. The sheer remoteness of the Northwest Passage also poses a problem, since rescue times could be significantly slower if the passage was frozen (Humpert, and Raspotnik). The U.S. must increase their current Arctic navigational capabilities in order to manage the route. As of now, with only one functioning medium-power icebreaker, we are currently unable to do so.

Since traffic in the Arctic region is sure to exponentially increase in the years to come, we must match that with an increased number of icebreakers. A rise to 1.5 million tons of cargo has been predicted to pass through the Northwest Passage in the next year (Humpert, and Raspotnik). That number is expected to increase to 40 million tons by 2021, thirty times what it is today (Koranyi). With more shipping vessels going through the Arctic waters, more will be sailing near Alaska (CITE). Traffic in the Arctic Ocean will not only grow due to shipping vessels, but also because of tourism and resource development (DeMarban). Another factor to consider is that as of this year, over 1,000 vessels pass through the Bering Strait each summer, according to Rear Adm. Thomas P. Ostelo, commander of the Coast Guard in Alaska (Bellingston).

Traffic through the Northwest Passage is going to increase greatly in the near future. In order to ensure the safety of Arctic vessels, we must build at least one icebreaker, which will allow us to easily navigate Arctic waters. With only the medium sized Healy in working condition, the United States Coast Guard is currently not capable of responding quickly to an emergency in the Arctic.

Icebreakers in the United States

Currently, the nation is in possession of two functional icebreakers: one heavy (the Polar Star) and one medium (the Healy), but only the Healy is currently in operation. There are two others in the country that are privately owned (by the NSF and Shell), but neither can be heavily relied upon to aid in an emergency, as they are both light icebreakers (United States Coast Guard). Other Arctic countries, such Russia and Canada, have upwards of 15 icebreakers, allowing them much more control over Arctic operations. This small number of icebreaking ships has caused the Coast Guard to be unable to fulfill its Arctic missions: to patrol the Arctic North, to perform research in the Arctic West, and make the U.S.’s Arctic bases available (O’Rourke). To fulfill these requirements, the Coast Guard needs, with its current procedures, at least three heavy and three medium icebreakers (O’Rourke). However, because of the budget

limitations, it is only suggested that we build one icebreaker. This will keep the project feasible while still increasing the Coast Guard’s Arctic operating capacity. Currently, with only two icebreakers, our country is lacking in polar transport and research capacity.

The Coast Guard’s primary icebreaker is the United States Coast Guard Cutter Healy. The Healy is a medium icebreaker, capable of breaking up to three feet of ice continuously or eight feet backing and ramming (United States Coast Guard). The thickness of Arctic ice and the inefficiency of the backing and ramming technique hinders the Healy from being able to clear a path for a major shipping line. Its primary function is scientific research. Most of its research entails studying Arctic marine mammals (United States Coast Guard). While its research is undoubtedly valuable to the scientific community, it does not have the capacity to clear shipping routes for major tankers.

The U.S.’s only heavy icebreaker, the Polar Star, was recently refurbished and is currently undergoing testing, estimated to be operable in fiscal year 2014 (O’Rourke). The Polar Star is capable of breaking six feet of ice at three knots and 21 feet of ice backing and ramming (Alexander). This is the capability our heavy icebreakers need to fulfill the Coast Guard’s missions. However, the fact that the heavy icebreaker was out of commission for over four years is troubling (Restino). If a major Arctic crisis, such as an oil spill, happened during that time, we would be lacking in ability to facilitate cleanup, or even rescue people involved in the accident. Therefore, any accidents that can happen in the Polar Regions are, for now, in the hands of other countries and private icebreakers.

There have been several studies showing that the U.S. would be helpless in the event of an Arctic oil spill. In early September, the Healy went on a mission to the waters north of Barrow, equipped with several new tools for detecting and cleaning oil spills (Bourne). Many of these are ROVs (remotely operated vehicles) similar to, but sturdier than those used to clean up the Deepwater Horizon spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 (Bourne). Though much testing and trial runs have occurred, it is still general consensus among the U.S. National Academy of Scientists and industry leaders that as of today, there is no effective Arctic oil spill response (Bourne). There have been spills in the past (spills are inevitable considering the amount of drilling that occurs on the North Slope) but the vast majority have been small and on land. During a hearing after the Deepwater Horizon spill, General Thad Allen said, “The current condition of the Coast Guard icebreaker fleet should be of great concern to the senior leaders of this nation” (Shumaker). In this, General Allen stated that we are not ready for major Arctic operations at this moment. Another important observation was from Commandant Admiral Robert Papp, saying of the BP oil spill, “If this were to happen on the North Slope of Alaska, we’d have nothing” (Bourne). These two quotes clearly demonstrate how those in charge of coastal safety understand the need for icebreakers.

Currently, the U.S. Coast Guard is lacking in ability to respond to a major Arctic emergency. This lack of ability is dangerous, as an Arctic oil spill has become “inevitable” in the eyes of some organizations (Bourne). Our current tools for cleaning up spills are being tested, but researchers do not know how effective they will be (Bourne). Also, we are unable to support oil facilities off the North Slope, except in Deadhorse and Prudhoe Bay (Shumaker). Therefore, with our current icebreakers, it is impossible to support the infrastructure of our Arctic regions.

Recent Needs for Icebreakers

The U.S.’s Arctic operations have been important to the nation’s security and economy many times. Past missions of icebreakers were key in helping to protect Alaska and even some key northern locations during World War II (Canney). During WWII, the ice breaker Mackinaw was built to break ice on the Great Lakes shipping lanes to sustain the shipment of millions of tons of iron and other materials for war-time production of steel (Historical Naval Ships Association).These missions are examples of when U.S. needed ice breakers in the past and why we need them in the present and the future.

Tourism is also another area where icebreakers were needed. For example, in January of

2009, a cruise ship carrying 300 passengers was stuck in thick ice in the St. Lawrence River and was in need of icebreaker help. Luckily, the Canadian Coast Guard was able to respond and they sent out an icebreaker to help free the cruise ship. (Noronha) Another incident where an icebreaker was used for rescue was in 2010. A cruise ship, named the Clipper Adventurer, in Nunavut’s Coronation Gulf crashed into a rock and became stranded. This cruise ship was completing a 15 day Arctic Expedition before it ran aground. (CBC News) The ship’s 118 passengers and crew were all safe an unharmed by the time the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen arrived to rescue them (CNN Wire Staff). The Canadian icebreaker had to travel over

500 miles from its base in Quebec City to rescue the passengers and transport them to a nearby town called Kugluktuk (CNN Wire Staff). It reached the stranded passengers in just about two days. These instances help show that increased tourist traffic in icy waters could potentially lead to even more cruise ship crashes in icy waters.

In early 2012, the Healy plowed the way for a shipment of fuel to Nome; the only shipment the city would receive all year (Ahlers). The shipment is one of the only non-research missions the Healy has ever had. It was due to a length of bad weather that Nome couldn’t get its fuel, and the Healy and a Russian icebreaking tanker called Renda had to deliver the fuel (Ahlers). The two ships left from Dutch Harbor, 300 miles south of Nome (Ahlers). They

arrived on Saturday, January 14th (Yardley). Without the fuel shipment, Nome would have run

out of fuel by March (Yardley). The icebreaker was not the only way to ship the fuel into Nome (it could have been flown in) but it was by far the cheapest, as gasoline is already six dollars per gallon in the city (Yardley). This example proves that the U.S. is in need of icebreakers, and while the Healy came through in that instance, it may not be able to in a future incident.

There are also many instances today that icebreakers are being used. On September 4,

2013, the French catamaran Babuska was stuck in ice in the Arctic when it was traveling from Alaska to Greenland (ITAR-TASS). The Russian icebreaker Admiral Makarov rescued the two- man vessel overnight and dropped them of at the Port of Pevek in Chukotka, Russia on September 6 (ITAR-TASS). Without the help of the icebreaker, the two men would have had a smaller chance of survival.

In January 2013, a British Naval Vessel rescued an Antarctic cruise ship. The Icebreaker HMS Protector was escorting the Norwegian cruise liner Fram, the cruise liner hoping to safely follow the icebreaker through the ice-filled waters of the Antarctic (Baker). However, the boat got trapped by large chunks of ice completely surrounding the vessel and prohibiting any movement (Baker). It then took the icebreaker Protector over two hours to crack through the 13- foot-thick ice that surrounded the Fram (Baker). If the Protector hadn’t been escorting them, the passengers aboard the Fram most likely would have had to wait days before another ship could assist them in getting out of the ice, due to the extremely few number of icebreakers in that region (Baker).

Cruise ships getting stuck in Arctic waters aren’t the only problem. Similarly, many shipping vessels also get stuck in the ice. In fact, Russian icebreaker Vladivostok was sent to rescue a Russian shipping vessel Mikhail Somov (“New York Times”). The Somov had been used to deliver supplies and relief crews to the Soviet Union’s scientific bases on Antarctica (“Christian Science Monitor”). The Somov was stuck in the Amundsen Sea for four months, from late April to when the Vladivostok rescued it in early August. The ice surrounding the Somov was around 12 feet thick (“Christian Science Monitor”). The rescue mission took from early June to early August, which, had Russia not sent one of their bigger icebreakers, would have taken much longer (“New York Times”).

There have been numerous incidents involving shipping freighters getting stuck the sea ice and having to be saved by icebreakers. One of these include when the Nordvik, a tanker transiting over 5,000 tons of arctic diesel fuel to Khatanga, Russia (MAREX). When the ship attempted to plow through the ice, it suffered a hole on the port side of the ship (MAREX).

The primary mission of the USCGC Healy is scientific support (Elliot). With this mission in mind, the Healy has been taking annual summer trips to the Arctic West since 2001. These trips are purely scientific and have different goals with each trip. In 2008, the Healy had two scientific missions that were part of the National Science Foundation’s Bering Ecosystem Study and the North Pacific Research Board’s Bering Sea Integrated Ecosystem Research Program (Elliot). Their goal was to study the “ecological processes as the sea ice retreats… Healy scientists will launch a comprehensive suite of studies to provide insights about how marine microorganisms, plants and animals, including fish, marine mammals, and birds, as well as local

human communities, will be affected by the on-going changes in the region” (Elliot). The Healy was in the Bering Sea for the first Arctic West Summer deployment from March 6th to May 17th (Elliot). The ship traveled over 8000 nautical miles and managed to perform 1,100 individual science evolutions (Elliot). The Healy still continues these expeditions today. On July 11, 2013, the Healy began their most current four-month deployment (Follmer). Without the Healy, many of the science done in the Arctic West would not be possible. The ice out there is dangerous even in the summer, but with the Healy it is possible to safely travel in the ice and research the sea ice and ecosystems in that area. The Healy is perfectly equipped to accomplish all the research, with multiple labs, two oceanographic winches, open working decks, staging areas for science

operations, cranes, science freezer and refrigerator, etc, and is dedicated to performing these operations (U.S. Coast Guard). Devoid of the Healy, we would not have the research we have on sea ice and Arctic West habitats and we would not be able to continually perform the scientific missions without it.

The size of our icebreaker fleet today is much smaller than it has been in the past. The need for the ships, however, will soon increase. The increase in Arctic shipping will make instances like Nome’s fuel problem much more common, and with only the Healy to deal with them, we won’t be able to help every ship and town or respond easily to emergencies.

Potential Future Needs

The U.S. is currently incapable of speedy or effective response to a major Arctic crisis. We have relied on other foreign icebreakers to help with rescues and other emergencies in the past. If a new icebreaker were built to replace the Polar Star, they would give us a great advantage in working in the Arctic waters that would allow increased dependency on the

icebreakers for any need of assistance. It will also allow us to become more involved politically and economically in Arctic interactions. Our icebreakers could be used more widely and clear more ice, providing an opportunity for scientists to do more research and work in Arctic areas. The acquisition of more icebreaking ships would increase the effectiveness of U.S. operations in the Arctic regions. Currently, the two major icebreakers are able to break through the ice, assist in scientific research, defend and monitor U.S. territorial waters, and take part in other missions as needed by the Coast Guard (O’Rourke). Considering the increase in shipping, we will need the icebreakers to create passages allowing ships to travel through the Arctic seas. The icebreakers will play a huge role in protection and security for shipping and recreational vessels. Our Coast Guard needs another icebreaker, and there are certain expectations to which it needs to live up.

Proposal

The ship outlined in our proposal is a heavy icebreaker, capable of breaking the thickest ice the Northwest Passage has to offer. The icebreaker must be able to spend at least 250 days at sea in one stretch, though over 300 would be recommended. These three factors are important to the functionality, fiscal feasibility, and efficiency of the icebreaker program.

Funding is always one of the primary factors in any project, be it scientific or economic. The state of Alaska has expressed interest in helping to fund a new icebreaker. No clarification was provided as to how much or what kind of help the state could provide. Also, Jim Hemsath, director of the Alaska Industrial and Development Authority has suggested that his agency could be involved in analyzing a market for a potential new icebreaker. For instance, Shell may

possibly rent the icebreaker for oil exploration in the Arctic, though a spokesman has stated that it is too early to say whether the company is considering this (DeMarban).

A new heavy icebreaker could cost approximately $852 million according to the Coast Guard (O’Rourke). However, this is an estimate for a heavy icebreaker, akin to the Polar Star. By contrast, it is estimated it would cost approximately $500 million to refurbish both the two Polar-class icebreakers for another decade (O’Rourke).

The most recent addition to the NSF’s (National Science Foundation) fleet is the Sikuliaq. The construction process started ten years ago. Many universities and research foundations got together to create a proposal for the NSF to build the Sikuliaq. Several different research groups provided funding for the $200 million project (Castellini). The primary purpose of the ship will be research; it is the only icebreaking vessel designed solely for this purpose (Castellini). Though it is owned by the NSF, it will be operated by the UAF School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences (Castellini). The vessel will be used to research the effects of the opening of the Northwest Passage and changing sea ice on the ecosystems in the Arctic, and will also study the ecosystems that change with the new open ocean that was previously covered in ice (Castellini). The icebreaker’s construction cost was covered primarily by funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Walker). The design study cost $1 million and was funded by Congress (Walker). It is possible to acquire some funding from the Coast Guard’s budget, but most of the money will have to come from other sources.

The nation’s new icebreaker should be similar to or better than the older models, so the capabilities of the former ships should be taken as a minimum when outlining the new ship’s abilities. Therefore, the ship should be able to break six feet of ice with ease, and more than twenty feet backing and ramming. The thickness of the Arctic sea ice necessitates this. The

thickness of ice varies throughout the Arctic, so the ship must be capable of breaking extremely thick ice so as to be ready to clear a path through any route necessary. Since no highly defined trade routes have been established through the Northwest Passage, there is no specific region to which we can pay attention; therefore, the icebreaker must be able to adapt to wide varieties of situations, and a high icebreaking capacity is essential to this.

The capacity to spend 300 or more days at sea at a time would also be highly beneficial to the ship’s mission. The Arctic sea ice is thick all year, so the ship must be on duty all the time. Also, the icebreaker should be able to carry cargo. This ability would make an event like the recent fuel crisis in Nome much easier to resolve, and would also allow the government to rent out the icebreaker for commercial purposes such as shipping oil or other goods. The new icebreaker could also help in providing more fuel or more frequent shipments to cities like Nome along the Bering and Chukchi Seas, lowering the fuel price and therefore increasing quality of life in those regions. These three factors are critical in making our icebreaker both able to fulfill its missions and to carry out the omnipresent mission of supporting people’s livelihoods.

Conclusion

The United States most definitely needs at least one new icebreaker. The Coast Guard cannot fulfill its mission of making Arctic waters safe without at least four more ships (O’Rourke). There is also an increased demand for ships that can navigate Arctic waters as the Northwest Passage opens and shipping increases. Even with the opening of the Northwest Passage, travel by that route isn’t entirely safe due to drifting sea ice. Shipping will also increase the chance for a need for capable search-and-rescue teams in case of a crash. In the past, the U.S. had many needs for icebreakers, and there is no reason to suspect that we won’t in the future. Even with the refurbishing of the Polar Star, our Coast Guard needs more icebreakers, and a new ship with more advanced technology could make their mission much easier to fulfill.

Arctic shipping is becoming more and more prevalent, and as a major world power, the United States needs to have control over who and what passes through our national waters. Given the amount of goods traded from Europe to Asia, there are bound to be more foreign ships traveling via the Northwest Passage, and we need to be able to manage that influx of trade. Building a new icebreaker or icebreakers is the best way for the Coast Guard to complete their missions. As long as the Coast Guard can fulfill its mission, the Northwest Passage will be more profitable and more efficient; but above all, a safer route of trade.

Citations

  1. Ahlers, Mike. “Coast Guard mission to Nome exposes U.S. limits in ice-breaking capability.” CNN. CNN, 05 Jan 2012. Web. 6 Nov 2013. <http://www.cnn.com/2012/01/05/us/alaska- nome-icebreaker/index.html>.
  2. Alexander, Rosemarie. “How the Coast Guard’s ice breaker crushes through 21 feet of solid ice.” KTOO. KTOO, 07 Aug 2013. Web. 9 Nov 2013. <http://www.ktoo.org/2013/08/07/polar-star/>. 
  3. “American Shipyards urge Congress.” vigorindustorial.com.N.p., 05 12 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2013. <http://vigorindustrial.com/news- press/american_shipyards_urge_congress_to_protect_u.s._arctic_security>.
  4. “A Soviet Icebreaker Guides Ship Out of Antarctic Icefield.” The New York Times. N.p., 04 08 1985. Web. 27 Nov 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/1985/08/04/world/a-soviet- icebreaker-guides-ship-out-of-antarctic-icefield.html>.
  5. Baker, Kraig. “British Naval Vessel Rescues Antarctic Cruise Ship.” gadling.com. N.p., 23 01 2013. Web. 24 Nov 2013. <http://www.gadling.com/2013/01/23/british-naval-vessel- rescues-antarctic-cruise-ship/>.
  6. Bellingston, Jerry. “Why the U.S. Must Build More Icebreakers Now.” popularmechanics.com. N.p., 17 02 2012. Web. 10 Nov 2013. <http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/infrastructure/why-the-us- must-build-more-icebreakers-now-6693195>.
  7. Bourne, Joel. “As Arctic Melts, a Race to Test Oil Spill Cleanup Technology.” National Geographic. National Geographic, 13 Sep 2013. Web. 20 Nov 2013. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2013/09/130913-arctic-oil-spill- cleanup-technology/>.
  8. Canney, Donald L..”Ice Breakers and the U.S. Coast Guard.”United States Coast Guard.N.p., 19 Nov 2013. Web. 10 Nov 2013. <http://www.uscg.mil/history/webcutters/Icebreakers.asp>. Castellini, Mike. (pers. comm.) UAF School of Fisheries 474-7210. P.O. Box 757220 Fairbanks, AK 99775-7220.
  9. “CGC Healy Ship’s Characteristics.”United States Coast Guard.United States Coast Guard, 19 Sep 2013. Web. 4 Nov 2013. <http://www.uscg.mil/pacarea/cgcHealy/ship.asp>.
  10. CNN Wire Staff, . “Passengers rescued from grounded Canadian cruise ship.” Cable News Network.Turner Broadcasting System, 30 Aug 2010.Web. 23 Nov 2013. <http://www.cnn.com/2010/TRAVEL/08/30/canada.ship.stuck/>.
  11. DeMarban, Alex. “Should Alaska take the lead in financing new icebreakers?.” Alaska Dispatch. Alaska Dispatch, 11 Apr 2012. Web. 8 Nov 2013. <http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/should-alaska-take-lead-financing-new- icebreakers>.
  12. Historical Naval Ships Association, .N.p..Web. 21 Nov 2013. <http://www.hnsa.org/ships/mackinaw.htm>.
  13. Humpert, Malte, and Andreas Raspotnik. “The Future of Arctic Shipping.” .N.p., 11 10 2012. Web. 23 Nov 2013. ITAR-TASS, .N.p..Web. 21 Nov 2013. <http://en.itar-tass.com/old-top-news/700080>.
  14. Koranyi, Balazs. “Arctic Shipping To Grow As Warming Opens Northern Sea Route For Longer.”huffingtonpost.com. N.p., 29 05 2013. Web. 19 Nov 2013. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/05/29/arctic-shipping-northern-sea- route_n_3351109.html>.
  15. McGarrity, John, Henning Gloystein, and Jane Baird, eds. “Big Freighter Traverses Northwest Passage for 1st Time.” reuters.com.N.p., 27 09 2013. Web. 10 Nov 2013.
  16. Noronha, Charmaine. “Ice breaker frees cruise ship in Quebec.” The Seattle Times. The Seattle Times, 28 Jan 2009. Web. 21 Nov 2013. <http://seattletimes.com/html/travel/2008680374_webcruise28.html>.
  17. “Nuclear Icebreakers Rescue Drifting Tanker in Arctic.”Maritime Executive. Marex, 16 09 2013. Web. 21 Nov 2013. <http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/Nucelar-Icebreakers- Rescue-Drifting-Tanker-in-Arctic-2013-09-16/>.
  18. O’Rourke, Ronald. “Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization:.” Federation of American Scientists. Federation of Amercian Scientists, 24 Jul 2013. Web. 10 Nov 2013. <http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL34391.pdf>.
  19. Roach , J.. “Arctic Melt Opens Northwest Passage.”National Geographic News. National Geographic, 17 Sep 2007. Web. 17 Nov 2013. <http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/09/070917-northwest-passage.html>.
  20. Restino, Carey. “Coast Guard: Refurbished icebreaker heads north.” Alaska Dispatch. Alaska Dispatch, 06 Jul 2013. Web. 18 Nov 2013. <http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/20130706/coast-guard-refurbished-icebreaker- heads-north>.
  21. Shumaker, Lisa. ” U.S. icebreakers can’t handle Alaska oil spills: official.” Reuters. Reuters, 11 Feb 2011. Web. 20 Nov 2013. <http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/11/us-arctic-oil- vessels-idUSTRE71A5RM20110211>.
  22. “Soviet icebreaker attempts dramatic Antarctic rescue mission. Hampered by polar night and thick ice, the rescue ship faces slow going.” The Christian Science Monitor. N.p.. Web. 25 Nov 2013. <http://www.csmonitor.com/1985/0723/oice.html/(page)/2>.
  23. “Stranded Nunavut cruise ship passengers rescued.” CBC News. CBC.ca, 29 Aug 2010. Web. 21 Nov 2013. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/stranded-nunavut-cruise-ship- passengers-rescued-1.885355>.
  24. Thorndike, A.S., and R. Colony. 1982. Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds. Journal of Geophysical Research87(C8): 5845-5852.
  25. “USCGC Healy (WAGB-20).” United States Coast Guard.United States Coast Guard, 19 Sep 2013. Web. 17 Nov 2013. <http://www.uscg.mil/pacarea/cgchealy/default.asp>.
  26. “U.S. Coast Guard’s 2013 Review of Major Icebreakers of the World.” USNI News. USNI News, 23 Jul 2013. Web. 09/05/2013. <http://news.usni.org/2013/07/23/u-s-coast-guards-2013- reivew-of-major-ice-breakers-of-the-world>.
  27. Walker, Sharice. “R/V Sikuliaq Launch.” R/V Sikuliaq: Global Class Ice-Capable Research Vessel. UAF, 22 Nov 2011. Web. 25 Nov 2013. <http://www.sfos.uaf.edu/sikuliaq/launch/index.html>.
  28. Yardley, William. “Tanker With Crucial Fuel Delivery Is Sighted Off Nome.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 13 Jan 2012. Web. 23 Nov 2013. <http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/14/us/fuel-tanker-renda-and-icebreaker-healy-are- sighted-off-nome.html?_r=0>.

Figure 1– The Extent of Arctic Sea Ice

 

Figure 2- Arctic Shipping Routes

 

Scroll to top

Send this to a friend