Mathematics

The Effects of Ocean Freshening on Marine and Atmospheric Circulation: Impacts and Solutions

Ocean freshening (the desalination of the oceans) is occurring, in part, due to increased terrestrial runoff and ice cap melting caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions. Ocean freshening causes a variety of problems on its own, independent of other variables of global climate change.

Three-Dimensional Preservation of Cellular and Subcellular Structures Suggests 1.6 Billion-Year-Old Crown-Group Red Algae

Multicellular eukaryotes rose to prominence around the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic transition coupled to evolving ecological interactions between megascopic autotrophs and heterotrophs. Animals in particular are thought to have had a pivotal role as—for example—predators, grazers, and filterers in expanding the food web through interactive processes not available to microbial life.

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