Health/Medicine

Osteoinduction of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Bioactive Composite Scaffolds without Supplemental Osteogenic Growth Factors

Regenerative medicine aims to repair and replace lost or damaged tissues by initiating the natural regeneration process. Current paradigms in tissue engineering often involve the combination of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells and the synthesis of novel biomaterials, tailoring physical, chemical and structural properties to mimic crucial aspects of the physiological niche

In Vitro Model of Vascularized Bone: Synergizing Vascular Development and Osteogenesis

In native bone, synergistic interactions between osteoblasts/osteogenic precursors and endothelial cells enable coordinated development of vasculature and mineralized tissue. In the process of intramembranous ossification during craniofacial bone growth, this cell coupling results in close spatial relationships between the two tissues in newly forming bone, with the vascular network serving as a ‘template’ for bone mineral deposition [1]. A synergy between the two cell populations has also been observed during endochondral ossification.

History of Antibiotic Adaptation Influences Microbial Evolutionary Dynamics During Subsequent Treatment

Antibiotic resistance is a growing healthcare concern whereby bacterial infections are increasingly difficult to eradicate due to their ability to survive antibiotic treatments [1]. There have been reported cases of resistance for nearly every antibiotic we have available [2]. Coupled with the fact that the antibiotic discovery pipeline has slowed over the past few decades [3], there is a dire need to find better treatment strategies using existing antibiotics that can slow or even reverse the development of resistance.

High-Throughput Assay for the Identification of Compounds Regulating Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

Osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders represent a major public health threat. One out of every two women and one in four men, aged 50 or older, is expected to develop an osteoporosis-related fracture in their lifetime [1], [2], [3]. There is a huge demand for products enhancing bone regeneration. Therefore, the last decade was denominated the bone and joint decade by the World Health Authority.

Hierarchical patterning modes orchestrate hair follicle morphogenesis

Diverse structures, such as the skeletal elements of the limb, rugae of the palate, cartilaginous rings of the trachea, intestinal villi, and feathers, scales, or hair follicles, develop in a periodically patterned manner. Although many specific models to explain the spontaneous emergence of such repeating patterns in embryonic tissues have been proposed [1], these can be grouped into 2 general classes (Fig 1A). The first class, based on the Turing reaction–diffusion system, relies on the operation of 2 opposing signalling processes: an activator, which is self-enhancing and has a limited spatial range, coupled with the production of an inhibitor with a greater spatial range.

Health Disparities and Clinical Trial Recruitment: Is There a Duty to Tweet?

While it is well known that the homogeneity of clinical trial participants often threatens the goal of attaining generalizable knowledge, researchers often cite issues with recruitment, including a lack of interest from participants, shortages of resources, or difficulty accessing particular populations, to explain the lack of diversity within sampling. It is proposed that social media might provide an opportunity to overcome these obstacles through affordable, targeted recruitment advertisements or messages.

Genomic Dissection of Conserved Transcriptional Regulation in Intestinal Epithelial Cells

Epithelial cells lining the intestinal tract serve important and evolutionarily conserved functions in animal physiology. The intestinal epithelium is the primary site for absorption and metabolism of diverse dietary nutrients and xenobiotics, relays metabolic and immunological signals to the rest of the body, and provides a critical barrier to microorganisms that reside within the intestinal lumen

Method of Targeting Circulating Tumor Cells

Cancer metastasis accounts for 90% for all cancer-related deaths. Thus, treatment and prevention of secondary tumor formation is vital. A liposome coated with an adhesion molecule and death ligand is proposed in order to target the cancer cells in the bloodstream.

Using Adhesion Molecules to Separate Circulating Tumor Cells

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a characteristic identification in metastasis. In order to monitor, diagnose, and analyze early-stage non-hematologic cancers, these rare cells must be separated from the whole blood with high efficiency. Thus, a microfluidic chip coated with E-selectin and microscopic inclined three-dimensional groove and wave patterns, which increases the probability of cell contact and separates the leukocytes and CTCs even further, is created.

Four simple rules that are sufficient to generate the mammalian blastocyst

Early mammalian development is a fascinating example of how deterministic spatiotemporal patterns emerge at the level of cell populations from highly stochastic regulatory components. During mouse preimplantation development, sequential lineage decisions take place, and these decisions are marked by the expression of lineage-determining transcription factors.

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