Earthquake and Tsunami Hit Scammon Bay

This paper is designed about what would happen in the even of the disaster. If there was a tsunami it could destroy the gas station. It could also ruin the airport. A Tsunami might not reach the pumphouse, but an earthquake could knock it down.

This paper is designed about what would happen in the even of the disaster. If there was a tsunami it could destroy the gas station. It could also ruin the airport. A Tsunami might not reach the pumphouse, but an earthquake could knock it down.

This paper also addresses what tools we would use if an earthquake and tsunami happened. On this section we listed a few tools we’d use. We could have use a tsunami and earthquake warning systems.

We also did a section on how we can protect Scammon Bay from earthquakes and tsunamis. The community could move their boats to higher grounds. We’d have to find a safe place to be closer to school, home and work. One of the most important communication to everybody would have to be making a lot of VHF announcements to alert others.

Another section was how would we take action in the event of an emergency. The community can practice drills for when an earthquake and tsunami happened. Everybody would have to help each other because the situation could be very serious. There would be emergency plans too. We all would have to know where danger could be and where good areas would be.

Last, we wrote about what we’d do to be prepared. The village would need a disaster plan, which means we’d all need to know where to go, have all our essentials ready, and listen to warnings. Everybody would be involved because they live in the same village.

Section 1: Define/Describe the impact of an earthquake and Tsunami on Scammon Bay

What is an earthquake?

The website dictionary.com states that an earthquake is “a series of vibrations induced in the earth’s crust by the abrupt rupture and rebound of rocks in which elastic strain has been slowly accumulating.”

The Michigan Technical University’s UPSeis website states “earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault. This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves that make the ground shake. When two blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other they stick a little. “ (www.geo.mtu.edu/upseis/why.html)

The notes from Penn State’s geosciences department states that “there are other secondary effects that are caused by earthquakes, most often a result of strong shaking. A simple example common in many earthquakes are landslides. The shaking causes regions of the rock and soil to slide downhill (Earthquake Effects).

Mudflows are another name for landslides. The RedCross website says, “Mudflows are powerful rivers of mud that can move twenty to forty miles per hour. Hot ashes or lava from a volcanic eruption can rapidly melt snow and ice at the summit of a volcano. The melted water quickly mixes with falling ash with soil cover on lower slopes and with debris in its path. This turbulent mixture is dangerous in stream channels and can travel more than 50 miles away from a volcano. Intense rainfall can also erode fresh volcanic deposits to form large mudflows. If you see the water level of a stream begin to rise quickly move to high ground. If a mudflow is approaching or passes a bridge you need to stay away from the bridge.” (http://www.redcross.org/prepare/disaster/volcano)

What is a tsunami?

Another result of an earthquake is a tsunami.

The most simple definition of a tsunami is by Dictionary.com which defines a tsunami as “an unusually large sea wave produced by a seaquake or undersea volcanic eruption.”

Another definition of a tsunami is by Australian Government Australian Geoscience website which states that “tsunamis are waves caused by sudden movement of the ocean due to earthquakes, landslides on the seafloor, land slumping into the ocean and large volcanic eruptions or meteorite impact in the ocean.” (Applying geoscience to Australia’s most important challenges)

The SMS Tsunami Warning website states “the effects of tsunami on a coastline can range from unnoticeable to devastating. The effects of a tsunami depend on the characteristics of the seismic events that generated the tsunami, the distance from it’s point of origin, its size and at last, the configuration of bathymetry (that is depth of water in oceans) along the coast that the tsunami is approaching (Earthquake & Tsunami Warning System)

Scammon Bay is a small village. The fuel is stored down at the gas station which is down by the river. The power plant is by the “New Road”, which goes down to the river. Right near the power plant is the city office. It is small, but it is still good. The airport is basically across from the “New Road”, which is by the river too. The store is in the middle of town. It is by the post office. There are houses surrounding it. The school is located maybe the farthest away from town because it is at a high point. It is closest to the mountain. I think the most vulnerable places would be downtown, like the houses that are closer to the river.

If an earthquake and a tsunami happed at once, everything would get destroyed. In addition to what an earthquake can do, a tsunami combined with it would make things far worse.

A tsunami can wash everything away, which the earthquake is still taking buildings down. The tsunami can wash away all the boats and transportation that we may need to use. It can also wash away the gas station which has the gas and fuel we would need for a boat if it did not get washed away or crushed. It could wash away the power plant and we would have no way to call out to other places for help, especially if there was both a tsunami and earthquake happening it could destroy everything we would need to get help or to leave Scammon Bay because of all the destruction. Everybody here could possibly die because it would be a too dangerous situation.

There also wouldn’t be any airport because of both the tsunami and the earthquake. An earthquake can crack the whole thing up and no planes could land because they would crash. It could even break up the airport to the extent that there would be no more gravel. A tsunami can wash off all the ground that is left of the airport because water is very strong. The water can be very high, ad because there would be a tsunami, the airport would be all gone and we wouldn’t be able to see the runway because of all the water that is on the top of it.

Maps from http://www.city-data.com/city/Scammon-Bay-Alaska.html

Figure 1: map of where of Scammon Bay is

Figure 2.: Map showing Scammon Bay roads and airport location

Section 2: What kinds of tools do you need to assess risk and vulnerability of the region?

Scammon Bay needs a map for a tsunami and what would the map show? It would show the mountains and a trial that goes to the cross on top of the mountain.

The tools we need to assess risk and vulnerability are to help us check the tectonic plates to see how much they have to move until the plates collide to make an earthquake. We also need to know when an earthquake has already hit. In case of an earthquake, there is nothing you can do except go under something that could hold 200 to 300 pounds.

What type of mapping of Scammon Bay would use:

The person that that could do this mapping is the government office, and Scammon Bay could get the money for it only if they could donate money to the amount of money we need to get the mapping of the tsunami evacuation map. An evacuation map would be needed to see were we could go and the fastest and the most safe way to go. Who would want to donate that much money for evacuation map? Very few people would want to donate the amount of money needed, but thing is you only could like donate ten, five, or even two dollars. This is not too much to donate for a tsunami mapping emergency plan. There could be a high school dance every week to get the money that is needed to get the supplies for the model to be built. We could also get the money from selling stuff like food, cloths, and others. When the model is done it would have to be tested for a few times to see how would it affect the town at different angles of the model.

Do we need an earthquake monitor no because we hardly get any earthquakes around Scammon Bay; do we need a tsunami monitor yes because we live near the ocean and if something goes wrong we could get the results and evacuate the village as fast as we could; and were could we get the tools at? We could get them at tsunami warning decision support tools-international. How could it help it would help us with/when it going to hit scammon bay; how could we get the money we could save up money for a few years, while saving up we could even sell stuff to help get the tsunami monitor early or at the best time witch is when we have the money when were done saving up, and done selling stuff. We would buy it once we got all we need.

How does tsunami warning system work?

If you feel violent or shaking for several minutes, you will have to head for the highs ground that you are near. Also the earthquake is your first warning that a tsunami could come your way.

As an example, the NOAA website tells us in December 26, 2004 there was a Sumatra 9.0 magnitude earthquake and subsequence Indian ocean and basin had a tsunami as well; on March 11, 2011 Japan 9.0 magnitude had an earthquake and tsunami at the same time rate after the earthquake (http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/warning_system_works.html).

What could we do?

According to the NOAA website, tsunami warning system is in a place to help minimize loss of life and property. There is a national tsunami warning center in Palmer, Alaska. This device monitors for earthquakes and tsunamis that happen after the earthquakes. If a tsunami is generated, they issue tsunami advisories and watches. (http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/warning_system_works.html)

Section 4: How would you take action? How do you improve community understanding of this potential danger while taking into account community values for coastal ecosystems? Choose one of the potential solutions from #3 and explain how you would put it into practice involving and educating the local community.

How do you improve community understanding of this potential danger while taking into account community values for coastal ecosystems?

Our community can take action by either developing an emergency action plan or having daily drills either every month or every 2 months. We can develop the communities understanding of these potential dangers by having a community meeting or giving them a presentation in school to better educate them on the dangers of earthquakes and tsunamis. They could learn about how to develop an emergency action plan and have them prepare an emergency survival kit if these disasters occurred. These disasters are highly effective and can destroy buildings and could ruin the town, so we will have to practice drills and learn more about what these disasters could do to our town. We can reduce our vulnerability from these disasters by learning and practicing the drills for both earthquakes and tsunamis.

An emergency action plan is a different person taking care of different people or having a specific job to do during an emergency (ETools | Evacuation Plans and Procedures eTool – Emergency Action Plan (EAP)).

For example one person can announce that there is a disaster coming or happening, then a different leader or a couple of leaders can be taking care of other people in there side of town, and a couple of people evacuating elders, children, and adults. If there are people injured a couple of leaders will get them away from danger and then call for assistance from a health aid and transport them to safety. To ensure our peoples safety we can practice drills to best avoid severe injuries or death. For an earthquake drill you look for sturdy places for cover in case of falling objects hanging from the ceiling  (http://www.earthquakecountry.info/downloads/ShakeOut_Recommended_Earthquake_Safety_Actions.pdf).

Some sturdy places for cover will be under a desk or a table and hold on tight, if outside look for a clearing away from buildings and telephone poles and just get down and curl up and wait for the shaking to stop and be prepared for aftershocks. After that gather all the people and then head to higher ground away from the shore in case of a tsunami.

For emergency survival kit your main emergency supplies you will need a flashlight, extra batteries, small handheld radio, some clothes, bathroom utensils, water, food, something to keep you warm, a first-aid kit, whistle, moist towelettes for personal sanitation, manual can opener for food, wrench or pliers to turn off utilities, and cell phones with chargers, inverter, or solar charger (Basic Disaster Supplies Kit.).

Your additional emergency supplies consists of prescriptions medications and glasses, important papers into a waterproof container or Ziploc bags, infant formula and diapers, pet food and extra water for pet, cash and or travelers checks or change, sleeping bags or warm blankets for everyone, and a lighter or waterproof matches (PowerPoint Presentation – Disaster Preparedness).

These are items you will need for an emergency survival kit. If that is too much stuff to carry have one person in your household to prepare one bag of several of these items and you will be set.

Another way we can educate our town of these potential disasters is a town meeting at the school for a presentation of what these disasters can do and what to do during a disaster. When we have a town meeting to educate our people of these disasters a group of people can take turns talking about each part of a presentation slide.

Earthquakes are highly dangerous because they can damage buildings and have objects fall from the ceiling and let shelves fall over and can cause serious injuries or death. Tsunamis can take buildings and debris with them and can cause death. We can use either of these steps to use if an earthquake or tsunami were to happen in or village or town so we can be prepared to evacuate after an earthquake occurs and or if a tsunami follows after the earthquake.

We can take these steps to avoid injuries or death in our villages and towns. These are what we need to take action if these potential dangers were to happen.

Section 5: How do you know that you are prepared?

Imagine a disaster like an earthquake and tsunami was about to hit your community. How would your community be prepared? Do you have an excavation route? What will you do after to be more prepared? During an earthquake drop down onto your hands and knees and cover your head under a sturdy table or desk. Be aware of tsunami warnings and proceed to high ground or away from the coastline. Here are some suggestions for being prepared, action plans, and how to get the community involved. (Being Prepared for an Earthquake)

There is a drill you should practice when an earthquakes hits. Number 1; drop down onto your hands and knees before the earthquake would knock you down. Number 2; cover your head and neck (and your entire body if possible) under the shelter of a sturdy table or desk. Number 3; Hold onto your shelter (or to your head and neck) until the shaking stops. These three steps help prevent injuries and insure your safety. (Being Prepared for an Earthquake)

First, we’ll talk about the three P’s of earthquake preparedness, Plan, Prepare, and Practice. Discuss a family plan for what you’re going to do before an earthquake hits. Make a floor plan of your house and plan where the emergency exits are, if possible. Prepare safety kits and mark where your essentials are. Discuss evacuation details if the house starts to collapse. Mark your house’s utility switches and valves so they can be turned them off. A location you pick outside should be a clear area, free of falling objects like trees, poles, etc. When you are preparing your safety kit, you should also grab items that have importance to you to be carried by you or your family. To know when an earthquake is about to hit, a radio or TV broadcast stations tuned for emergency broadcast information. To prevent losing important documents from your house being destroyed, store documents like birth certificates, social security papers, insurance papers, etc in a safe. (Tsunami Preparedness)

Before a tsunami hits, you should do the following. Number 1; develop a disaster plan. Number 2; plan an evacuation route. Number 3; practice your evacuation route. Number 4; have a weather radio to keep you informed. Number 5; discuss tsunami preparedness with your family. Number 6; prepare a safety kit and essentials. Number 7; heed warnings. This list should help insure your safety. (Tsunami Preparedness)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issues tsunami watches, warnings, and information bulletins when tsunami activity is detected. These warnings include predicted tsunami arrival times and selected coastal communities within the distance. These methods can help increase awareness in order to be prepared. You should pick an area 100 feet above sea level or you should get far away as possible from the coastline. Practicing makes it much easier for you to evacuate the area or if

you have to do this at night or in bad weather. A weather radio helps keep you informed of local watch or warnings. Have a family meeting of what you guys will do, talk about the dangers of tsunamis, and where you’ll go ahead of time. This will reduce fear and anxiety. Prepare a supply kit that should sustain your family for about a week and have that kit easily accessible. When officials issues warnings and evacuation notices, follow their directions and do your disasters plans immediately. (Tsunami Preparedness)

Communities that use the three P’s are better prepared to save lives. The effect of an earthquake and tsunami can be reduced through community preparedness, timely warnings, and effective responses. We can encourage communities and maximize awareness to start preparing for disaster preparedness. We need to get communities to start thinking about the possibilities of disasters and what to do. Leaders in the communities should start considering putting together a disaster planning committee.

References:

  1. Applying geoscience to Australia’s most important challenges. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.ga.gov.au/scientific- topics/hazards/tsunami/basics/
  2. Basic Disaster Supplies Kit. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.ready.gov/kit
  3. Being Prepared for an Earthquake. (2015, November 11). Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/earthquakes/prepared.asp
  4. Earthquake Effects. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu/~cammon/HTML/Classes/IntroQuakes/Notes/earthquake_ef fects.html
  5. Earthquake & Tsunami Warning System | SMS Text to Mobile Phone, Free Membership. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.sms-tsunami- warning.com/pages/tsunami-effect#.VKQrYanxZz
  6. ETools | Evacuation Plans and Procedures eTool – Emergency Action Plan (EAP). (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/evacuation/eap.html
  7. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.geo.mtu.edu/upseis/why.html
  8. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.earthquakecountry.info/downloads/ShakeOut_Recommended_Earthquake_ Safety_Actions.pdf
  9. PowerPoint Presentation – Disaster Preparedness. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://nephron.org/php/Hagstrom.htm
  10. Scammon Bay, Alaska. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2015, from http://www.city- data.com/city/Scammon-Bay-Alaska.html
  11. What’s Your Tsunami Preparedness. (2015, November 11). Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.noaa.gov/features/tsunami/preparedness.html

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Earthquake and Tsunami Hit Scammon Bay

This paper is designed about what would happen in the even of the disaster. If there was a tsunami it could destroy the gas station. It could also ruin the airport. A Tsunami might not reach the pumphouse, but an earthquake could knock it down.

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