The Arctic Ocean sea ice extent has been rapidly declining since 1979. Positive feedback loops are expected to increase the rate of melting, posing a serious threat to the entire Arctic marine ecosystem. The Arctic Ocean ecosystem, including the Chukchi Sea, is currently benthic dominated, but is expected to become pelagic dominated due to changes in algal and zooplankton dominance.
Three-Dimensional Preservation of Cellular and Subcellular Structures Suggests 1.6 Billion-Year-Old Crown-Group Red Algae
Multicellular eukaryotes rose to prominence around the Proterozoic–Phanerozoic transition coupled to evolving ecological interactions between megascopic autotrophs and heterotrophs. Animals in particular are thought to have had a pivotal role as—for example—predators, grazers, and filterers in expanding the food web through interactive processes not available to microbial life.
With an increase in boating, offshore drilling, and transportation of oil, coastal communities are in need of a plan to clean up waterways in the event of an offshore oil spill. Manual removal of oil is a critical first step and when paired with bioremediation as a secondary method the highest possible success of oil breakdown at a spill site can be achieved.
Well-built seawalls have long been used as an inexpensive way to control coastal erosion. Seawalls are associated with reduced aesthetic value, and increased erosion at the ends and in front of the seawall.
Red tides occur all over the world but the farthest north they have been detected in Alaska is Cook Inlet. They are large blooms of toxin producing dinoflagellates that may color the water a deep red. The key point is the production of toxin. Red tides can actually produce other colorations of the tides, but not all colored tides are necessarily toxic. The toxin is taken in by filter feeding animals and stored in their flesh.
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