The Comprehensive Management of Chinook Salmon in Campbell Creek Estuary

The focal point of our efforts is the Campbell Creek Estuary in Anchorage, Alaska, and the Chinook salmon within it. Campbell Creek Estuary is an ecologically diverse area in which numerous natural processes occur and serve as a bio-filter for the more populated areas of Anchorage (Municipality of Anchorage 2010).

Abstract

The focal point of our efforts is the Campbell Creek Estuary in Anchorage, Alaska, and the Chinook salmon within it. Campbell Creek Estuary is an ecologically diverse area in which numerous natural processes occur and serve as a bio-filter for the more populated areas of Anchorage (Municipality of Anchorage 2010). It also serves as a nursery for numerous fish species, including all five Pacific salmon. Of all the estuaries in the surrounding area, Campbell Creek is by far the most intact and least affected by urban development. Therefore, it is most important to protect, so as not to further the detriment of any species relying on estuaries as a means of survival.

Salmon are considered to be one of the best indicator species, as they are extremely sensitive to changes in water quality, trophic webs, and upstream perturbations to the river flow, turbidity, and temperature (Rahr 2011). Coupling this with the fact commercial salmon fisheries produced approximately $512 million for Alaskans between 2007-2011 (ADF&G 2012), we feel that this species is ideal for conservation efforts.

Introduction

Campbell Creek estuary sits on Turnagain Arm, stretching southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. It is part of the Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge, covering a distance of 60 acres along the coast. The estuary is an ecosystem that serves as a convergence point for river and ocean systems, creating a unique environment for species from land and sea to live and thrive. Maritime, alkali, bayonette and sedge grasses provide cover and nesting materials for over 220 species of birds. The brackish water of the estuary is home to the culturally and economically important Chinook, pink, coho, and sockeye salmon, as well as rainbow trout, arctic char, and Dolly Varden.

There is a necessity for an evaluation of the current condition of the Campbell Creek Estuary and propose a management plan for the protection and maintenance of this ecological community. This plan will introduce a functional and affordable strategy that will serve as a catalyst in the process of advancement for the estuary. The history of the estuary, the social and economic significance of the Chinook salmon, primary threats to the estuary and inherent species, and the biology of the target species will all be considered in detail. Before introducing this plan, we will compare the state of the Campbell Creek Estuary to that of Fraser River Estuary in British Columbia, Canada; the significance of protecting the Campbell Creek Estuary will be explained; finally, appropriate strategies to best handle any problems within the Campbell Creek Estuary will be determined and put into action.

Biology

Physical Description

The Chinook salmon (Onchorhyncus tshawytscha) is the largest species of Pacific salmon, sometimes exceeding 100 pounds in weight and five feet in length during their five to eight year life span. The Chinook is characterized by its dark blue-green back, silvery sides, and white underbelly with dark spots on the back, fins and tail. Males can be easily distinguished from females by its hooked nose and ridged back. During the spawning season, both males and females obtain a reddish color on their sides, with the males being slightly deeper in hue.

Habitat

As an anadromous fish, the Chinook is born in freshwater, migrates to the ocean, and returns as a mature adult to the streams where they were born to spawn. Freshwater streams, open oceans and estuaries are all important to the Chinook in the course of its life. In the freshwater stream, the water must be at most 14 degrees Celsius, or 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit and fast flowing, in ideal conditions. The estuarine biome is a transition zone from fresh to salt water. In the estuaries, it is better for the fish to have more food and vegetation, as the more there is, the more opportunity for feeding and hiding. When the Chinook is at sea, it can stay closer to shore or migrate thousands of miles into the deep Pacific Ocean.

Development and Life Cycle

At the very beginning, the spawning female digs a nest, called a redd, into the gravel of the streambed. She then deposits her eggs, and the spawning male deposits his sperm on them. Depending on the temperature of the water, the eggs hatch after 90-150 days. The alveins, salmon fry with the yolk sac attached to the underbelly, then stay in the gravel until the yolk sac has been used up. In the spring, the fry emerge from the gravel to feed and grow for another few months to two years, depending on the stream system they are born in. As smolts, they migrate downstream, following the natural current of the stream. During the transition from fresh to salt water, the smolts experience rapid, considerable changes in their physiology. Once at sea, they spend 1-7 years growing and maturing. Once mature, the adult fish will then return to their natal streams to spawn and continue the cycle. When the fish have completed the transition from salt to freshwater, they no longer eat, and sexual maturation is completed during the migration. Upon arriving at the natural streams, the fish continue the cycle. Once the spawning process is completed, both parents will guard the redd until they die, which is usually within the next 20-25 days.

Behavior

Chinook salmon are anadromous, and make significant migrations to the deepest parts of the ocean and returning to their natal streams as mature adults. They use sun-compass orientation out in the open ocean, and then use smell to direct them to the exact stream. Behavior types are divided into two basic types: Stream- and Ocean-types. The classification depends on the amount of time juveniles spend in freshwater. Stream types tend to spend 1-2 years in the stream, and are more dependent on that particular ecosystem than their ocean counterparts. Ocean types migrate to the open ocean in as little as 3 months. The salmon that fall into this classification spend their time in the ocean closer to the shore, while stream types make migrations very far into the ocean. Also, stream-types are usually found more in the north, in stable streams with a consistent trend of productivity and little change in water flow. When it comes to spawning, the stream types drop fewer and smaller eggs than ocean types, because their freshwater migration requires so much more energy.

Description and History of Campbell Creek

The Campbell Creek Estuary is located on the coast of Southwest Anchorage. It sits on the Turnagain Arm at the inner end of the Cook Inlet. The property is relatively undeveloped, but it borders an urban neighborhood to the north, as well as the Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge to the south.

The southern half of Campbell Creek watershed is the actual estuary, combining fresh groundwater, inlet tides, and water from Campbell Creek. Bordering the estuarine wetland is a slope covered native deciduous canopy and understory. The rest of the topography surrounding the estuary consists of flat uplands covered by native deciduous woodlands, spruce forest, and herbaceous vegetation, as well as a spruce bog and open meadow.

The estuary itself is home to an important resource; the Chinook salmon, scientific name Oncorhynchus tshawytsccha. This species of fish is an essential source of food for the general Alaskan region, as well as a central cultural symbol of Alaskan heritage.

Campbell Creek was initially discovered by Europeans in May of 1778, during an exploration mission directed by Captain James Cook to find the Northwest Passage. Upon exploring the Cook Inlet and realizing it was not the Passage he was looking for, he named the waterway to the south of modern Anchorage, “Turnagain River” (Alaska History and Cultural Studies)

The area remained largely untouched until the late 19th and 20th centuries. During this time, the first non-native settlement was precipitated by the need for a railroad system from the coast to the interior, where mineral discoveries had created a push for inhabitation (Anchorage Museum 2012).

Even with the influx of non-native people into the Anchorage area from that time until World War II era, when the population tripled in less than a decade, much of Anchorage remained well north of Campbell Creek. The majority of the 15,000 acre watershed remained unsettled up until and during the early 1970’s.

Regardless, Campbell Creek estuary and surrounding watershed saw some settlement between 1945 and 2007, resulting in encroachment upon the Campbell Creek floodplains. The U.S. Army Corp of Engineers was contracted to assess changes and impacts, and to highlight necessary steps to minimize damage done to Campbell Creek Estuary and watershed.

Description and History of Fraser River Estuary

The Fraser River Estuary is located at the mouth of the Fraser River by the city of Vancouver, British Colombia. The estuary is a key stop for millions of birds during their annual migration. It also has the highest concentration of wintering raptors in Canada.

The estuary is directly in the migration route known as the Pacific Flyway. With such a location, its intertidal habitat of fresh and saltwater produces marshes, sandbars and mudflats, which provide vital food resources for migratory birds. Some of these birds include the Great Blue Heron, American Widgeons, the Dunlin, the Western Sandpiper, and the Lesser Snow Goose (Fisheries and Oceans Canada).

Fraser River Estuary, similar to Campbell Creek, serves as a home for juvenile Chinook salmon. The surrounding watershed is the largest Canadian produce of Chinook salmon, partly due to the 1985 Pacific Salmon Treaty. This treaty was created as a result of United States and Canadian committing to halting the decline of Chinook escapements.

Impacts of Humans on Estuaries

The estuaries of the world are being affected by many different problems caused by the presence and continuing progress of humans on earth. Twenty-two of the largest cities in the world are located in or around estuaries. This has led to estuaries being among the most endangered ecosystems on the planet. Among the estuaries being driven out of existence by large cities is the “hidden gem” of Campbell Creek Estuary, tucked into South Anchorage, Alaska. Also amid the endangered is the Fraser River Estuary, located near Vancouver, Canada.

Large cities encroaching upon these particular estuaries can cause many chronic issues amid the species living within the affected topography. Some of these effects include the continual presence of toxic substances in the food chain, deterioration of food resources, and high risk for accidental chemical and oil spills, among others.

In the Campbell Creek Estuary, urbanization has compounded many problems that occur naturally. In many places, residential areas hover on the margins of Campbell Creek Estuary. Quite a few of the homeowners on the borders between the city and the estuary keep and maintain lawns that go right up to the edge of the creek beds within the estuary. As grass roots are shallow, they don’t bind the soil, and erosion is amplified to a higher state than is natural. To fight this, many homeowners use improper materials, such as tires, cement blocks, or other unnatural things. These often get washed downstream or otherwise impact the flow of the streams.

Not only is erosion a huge problem in the Campbell Creek Estuary, but constant ditching of the stream beds leads to a lack of habitat diversity for fish. The process has eradicated many of the overhanging shorelines and hiding pools that provide rearing and escape habitats for juvenile fish. Ditching and channelization has also led to the destruction of backwater areas that are critical to fish pursuing sanctuary from poor water quality and extreme high or low water conditions.

As for the Fraser River Estuary, the major problem it is facing is pollution from several, varied sources. The city of Vancouver, sits on the Fraser River Estuary, and acts as a huge precipitation collection and funneling system. Rain and melt water from snow and ice are channeled directly into the streams and creeks that are part of the estuary itself. On the way there, they collect large amounts of dirt, oil, litter and chemicals, which are then dumped directly into the water of the estuary.

Runoff is not the only source of pollution for the Fraser River Estuary. Another large contributor towards the deplorable conditions of the estuary is effluent. Effluent is the treated waste and waste products flowing directly into the estuary waters. This is usually a conglomeration of household cleaners, solvents, industrial waste from smaller firms, and various other chemicals that are harmful to the species living within the estuary.

The development of a more comprehensive management plan must be put into action for the continued preservation of the Campbell Creek Estuary. This is a crucial point in the protection of this valuable and fragile ecosystem. Action must be taken in the defense of the estuaries and soon.

Compare/Contrast

The current management plans of Chinook salmon in the Campbell Creek in Anchorage, Alaska and the Fraser River Estuary in British Columbia, Canada are well developed and well sustained. The Campbell Creek Estuary has two organizations that keep the salmon population thriving; these include the Alaska Board of Fisheries (BOF) and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G), while the estuary’s health is managed by the Great Land Trust and is considered a protected area by the Municipality of Anchorage (ADF&G 2012). The BOF was given the responsibility to make regulations guiding the guardianship and development of the state’s fisheries resources, including the distribution of benefits among subsistence, commercial, recreational, and personal uses (ADF&G 2012). On the other hand, the ADF&G was given the responsibility to article the BOF’s regulations and management plans through the scientific management of the state’s fisheries resources.

The fishery management plan falls into two activities: in-season management and applied science (ADF&G 2012). For in-season management, the divisions separate a group of fishery managers near the fisheries. These groups have a wide range of authority to open or close fisheries based on their judgment, the most current data from field projects, and fishery performance. Research biologists and other specialists plan research in close cooperation with the fishery managers. The main idea of the division’s research house is to make sure that the managers have the support they need to make sure that fisheries are managed according to the scientific principles and apply the best available biological data.

Another way they manage the Chinook salmon population is by setting rules that state when you can fish for these species, and what to use, and if you may keep what you catch. Anglers are reminded that except for kids-only fishery, the entire Campbell Creek drainage is closed to Chinook salmon sport fishing which also includes catch-and-release (ADF&G 2012). The Anchorage Police Department (APD) has added more to their patrols along the Campbell Creek Estuary as a result of people poaching. Bait is legal and once you have harvested the Chinook salmon, you must immediately write down that harvest on the back of your fishing license or on an ADF&G Annual Harvest Record Card (ADF&G 2012). Once you harvest from the area, you may not fish for any other species for the rest of the day.

The Fraser River Estuary is being managed by the Fraser River Estuary Management Program (FREMP). FREMP has provided a plan to protect and improve the environmental quality, provide economic development opportunities and keep the quality of life in and around the Fraser River Estuary. FREMP has come up with seven action programs which include the following: integration and sustainability, water and sediment quality, dredging and navigation, recreation, fish and wildlife habitat, industrial and urban development, and log management (FREMP 2001). These programs help sustain the estuary and the way of life in the estuary which help the salmon continue their way of existence.

The salmon in Fraser River became even more sustainable when Canada decided to participate in the Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST). Under the PST, co-operation in the management, research, and enhancement of Pacific Salmon is engaged by Canada and the PST states that measures achieved under this treaty must “recover, maintain, and protect” (FREMP 2003) salmon populations. Salmon management is also guided by several policies which include: Canada’s Policy for Conservation of Wild Pacific Salmon (WSP), an Allocation Policy for Pacific Salmon (APPS), and policy selective fishing. The WSP shows the importance of Pacific Wild Salmon, monitors habitat status, identifies strategies for their protection, preservation, and rebuilding. APPS guides management and distribution of Pacific salmon between commercial fisherman, recreational fishermen, and the First Nations.

There are some laws that must be followed to fish for Chinook salmon. These include: fishermen must have a salmon fishing license, and fisher identification number which allow managers to identify fish harvesters for information collection.

Management Plan

The health of Campbell Creek Estuary is imperative to the migratory patterns of Chinook salmon as they travel in and out of the Campbell Creek watershed (Campbell and Little Campbell Creeks) for spawning and rearing purposes. Coupling this with the fact that Campbell Creek watershed is the most intact, ecologically functional watershed in Anchorage in relation to salmon habitat (Municipality of Anchorage 2010), it is a top priority to preserve this valuable resource.

It is our priority to increase the overall health of the Campbell Creek Estuary so that all organisms living in or depending on the estuary (most specifically the Chinook salmon, but also including plants, mammals, birds, other fish, etc.) will have a stable habitat which will be maintained and closely monitored, so as to ensure that the numerous natural processes occurring within the estuary and watershed are not being interrupted by either human or natural occurrences.

Currently, the Great Land Trust has issued a project with the Municipality of Anchorage to protect Campbell Creek Estuary and maintain it with a conservation easement. Their plan is a stable, safe way of maintaining the estuary and the Chinooks in it; however, we feel that it is not properly equipped to deal with anything outside of its current scope like the Fraser River Estuary management plan, which outlines local planning and resource management actions that will guide current and future water, shoreline, and upland use in the Estuary (FREMP 2003). Campbell Creek Estuary is of great value to Alaskans and it is our goal to construct a management plan which can be flexed and changed as nature and time demand.

It is our belief that Great Land Trust and Municipality of Anchorage should be left in charge of the Campbell Creek Estuary area. While they have stated their intention to keep the wetlands clear of hazardous off-road vehicles (such as four-wheelers, dirt-bikes, and snow- machines), thus keeping the environment healthier, they have not made mention of how they plan to monitor any changes within the watershed. The Fraser River Estuary, as stated previously, has a seven step action plan to protect their estuary. Of these seven steps, we would adopt the Fraser River Estuary Management Plan’s policies for monitoring water and sediment quality, as well as policies similar to those outlined in the Canadian Policy for Conservation of Wild Pacific Salmon (WSP). Canada also has a Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST), used in some parts of the United States, which looks to protect all five species of Pacific salmon. After reviewing this document, we feel it is an appropriate plan to put into action in this particular environment. Our management plan is based on a five-year study, beginning with the testing of water quality and its impacts on the Chinook salmon.

Water and sediment quality (a major issue under the WSP), which is not measured under the current Campbell Creek Estuary management plan, will be tested on a bi-weekly basis to ensure that the estuary is in prime condition so that maximum fish and plant growth can be seen. To do this, we would have ADF&G cooperate with local schools taking students to go collect water samples on basis as a part of their science curriculum. The samples, first tested by the students for basic water variables such as pH, would later be sent to University of Alaska Fairbanks for more accurate sampling and for more complex factors most likely to affect the health of the estuary and the Chinook salmon within it; this includes but is not limited to water temperature, turbidity levels, nitrates, nitrites, dissolved oxygen, and carbon dioxide levels. We feel that this would not only increase interest in science, but also allow students to see changes in the water over time and increase environmental awareness in the next generation. It would also allow us to see what true problems are occurring within the watershed, whether from natural causes or urban or agricultural run-off from surrounding areas. From this collected data, we will be able to know what action steps must be taken in order to most effectively protect both the estuary and the salmon population within it.

Finally, the Pacific Salmon Treaty (also utilized in Southeast Alaska, Washington, and Oregon) has come up with a plan that states fishery management measures implemented under the Treaty are appropriate for recovering, maintaining and protecting salmon stocks (PST 2009).

We feel that these are the most important parts of creating a sustainable stock of salmon, especially after the significant drop in population after the summer of 2012. State and/or federal researchers would begin monitoring the salmon with current DNA tagging procedures, catch counts, and biomass estimations to give a clearer understanding of how many fish reside within Campbell Creek Estuary. We would use this new information to assess how a factor within the water has impacted the salmon which, as an indicator organism, would also allow us to see how the health of other species within the watershed is being affected.

At the end of the five-year period, the data will be summarized and the best action steps can be determined for the health of the estuary at that time. By leaving the plan open in this way, more solutions can be proposed in order to do what is best to resolve the problems within Campbell Creek Estuary at that time.

The total project cost for the standing management plan is $6.42 million dollars. Employees working on the management plan will be paid on an eight-hour day basis, though their wages will be determined before implementation and depend greatly on the amount of money sponsors donate to Great Land Trust and the economic status of the United States at the time. We recognize that scientific undertakings are not free and would ask for grants from organizations like the NOAA and SeaGrant, as well as from the state of Alaska and the local companies currently sponsoring Great Land Trust and its research in Campbell Creek Estuary.

Conclusion

Chinook salmon are not only vital to Alaska’s economy; they also are a symbol of the Alaskan way of life. Preservation of Campbell Creek Estuary is essential to the continued sustainability of Chinook salmon. Each part of this management plan has been developed to maintain and improve the health of the Campbell Creek Estuary so that it may also become a living, working estuary. It has been formulated to work with any changing factors due to possible impracticality or infeasibility. It also is able to adapt to unforeseen changes within the habitat. With this management plan, we hope to make Campbell Creek Estuary a place not only for current generations to benefit from, but for future generations to follow.

Figure 1: A map of the range of Chinook salmon within Alaskan waters by the Alaska

Department of Fish and Game (http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=chinook.rangemap)

Figure 2: Life cycle of an average salmon from Nicomekl Hatchery

(http://www.nicomeklhatchery.com/education2.htm)

Figure 3: Value of Alaskan salmon from 1878-2011 by Alaska Department of Fish and Game

(http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=commercialbyfisherysalmon.salmoncatch)

Figure 4: Map of the Fraser River Estuary

(http://www.goldseal.ca/wildsalmon/species.asp)

Figure 5: Map of the protected Campbell Creek Estuary area

(http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/northamerica/unitedstates/alaska/placesweprotect/cc_aerial.pdf)

Bibliography

  1. Anchorage Museum. ANCHORAGE MUSEUM, N.D. Web. 12 Sept. 2012 <http://www.Anchoragemuseum.Org/Galleries/Alaska_Gallery/Gold_Rush.Aspx>.
  2. Campbell Creek Estuary Natural Area Master Plan. Municipality Of Anchorage, Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <http://www.Muni.Org/Departments/Parks/Documents/2012-10-15_MASTER%20PLAN.Pdf>.
  3. CanadaFs Aquatic Environment. Cybernatural Software Group, N.D. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Aquatic.Uoguelph.Ca/Rivers/Fraser.Htm>.
  4. Fisheries And Oceans Canada. Fisheries And Oceans Canada, 2 May 2012. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Pac.Dfo-Mpo.Gc.Ca/Science/Habitat/Frw-Rfo/Index-Eng.Htm>.
  5. NOAA National Ocean Service Education. National Oceanic And Atmosphere Association, 18 July 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <Http://Oceanservice.Noaa.Gov/Education/Tutorial_Estuaries/>.
  6. Fraser Estuary, Lower Mainland, Vancouver, BC. H Britishcolumbia.com. Shangaan Webservices, 1998. Web. 19 Sept. 2012.
  7. “Russia’s Colony – The English And Captain Cook Step In.” Alaska History And Cultural Studies. Alaska Humanities Forum, 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Akhistorycourse.Org/Articles/Article.Php?Artid=199>.
  8. “Urban Issues.” Fraser River Action Plan. Environment Canada, N.D. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <Http://Research.Rem.Sfu.Ca/Downloads/Frap/Urbane.Pdf>.
  9. Alaska Department Of Fish And Game; Anchorage Coastal Wildlife Refuge Management Plan. <Http://Www.Adfg.Alaska.Gov/Static/Lands/Protectedareas/_Management_Plans/Anch_Coastal_Management_Plan.Pdf>.
  10. Alaska Fishing. Www.Alaskafishingak.Com, N.D. Web. 12 Oct. 2012 <Http://Www.Alaskafishingak.Com/Anchorage/Fishing-In-Campbell-Creek.Htm>.
  11. Anchorage Museum. ANCHORAGE MUSEUM, N.D. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Anchoragemuseum.Org/Galleries/Alaska_Gallery/Gold_Rush.Aspx>.
  12. Bcparks. Province Of British Columbia, 2011. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Env.Gov.Bc.Ca/Bcparks/Heritage_Rivers_Program/Bc_Rivers/ Fraser_River.Html>.
  13. Canada’s Aquatic Environment. Cybernatural Software Group, N.D. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Aquatic.Uoguelph.Ca/Rivers/Fraser.Htm>.
  14. Canadian Council For Geographic Education. Canadian Council For Geographic Education, 2012. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Ccge.Org/Resources/Rivers_Of_Canada/Fraser_River/Troubled_Waters.Asp>.
  15. Fisheries And Oceans Canada. Fisheries And Oceans Canada, 2 May 2012. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Pac.Dfo-Mpo.Gc.Ca/Science/Habitat/Frw-Rfo/Index-Eng.Htm>.
  16. Indigenous Foundations. First Nations Studies Program, 2009. Web. 3 Nov. 2012 <Http://Indigenousfoundations.Arts.Ubc.Ca/?Id=1072>.
  17. Mckinnell, Stewart M., Et Al. “The Decline Of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus Nerka (Steller, 1743) In Relation To Marine Ecology.” Diss. Print.
  18. Mckinnell, Stewart M., Et Al. Gthe Decline Of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus Nerka (Steller, 1743) In Relation To Marine Ecology. H Diss. Print.
  19. Mitchell, Dave. Conservation Director, Great Land Trust. 1007 W 3rd Ave, Suite 302, Anchorage, Alaska, 99501. 907.278.4995.
  20. Municipality Of Anchorage; Campbell Creek Estuary Conservation Project. <Http://Www.Greatlandtrust.Org/Ourland/Campbell_Estuary.Html>.
  21. Rivershed Society Of BC. Rivershed Society Of BC, N.D. Web. 10 Sept. 2012 <Http://Rivershed.Com/About/History-And-Accomplishments>.
  22. Samson V Maritime Museum. N.P., N.D. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Nwheritage.Org/Heritagesite/Orgs/Samson/Fraser%20history%20page.Htm>.
  23. Scott, Caren. Gonchorhynchus Tshawytscha Black Salmon. H Ed. William Fink. Animal Diversity Web. University Of Michigan Museum Of Zoology, N.D. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <Http://Animaldiversity.Ummz.Umich.Edu/Accounts/Oncorhynchus_Tshawytscha/>.
  24. Shepard, Phil. Director, Great Land Trust. 1007 W 3rd Ave, Suite 302 Anchorage, Alaska, 99501. 907.278.4998
  25. Wwf-Canada. “Canada’s Rivers At Risk.” 1986. Pdf File.
  26. Alaska Department Of Fish And Game. Alaskashare.Org, N.D. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <Http://Www.Adfg.Alaska.Gov/Index.Cfm?Adfg=Chinook.Management>.
  27. Alaska Department Of Fish And Game. Alaskashare.Org, N.D. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. <Http://Www.Adfg.Alaska.Gov/Sf/Fishingreports/Index.Cfm?Adfg=R2.Summary&Area_Key=1&Recordid=6>.
  28. Anchorage Museum. Anchorage Museum, N.D. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Anchoragemuseum.Org/Galleries/Alaska_Gallery/Gold_Rush.Aspx>.
  29. Campbell Creek Estuary Natural Area Master Plan. Municipality Of Anchorage, Oct. 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <Http://Www.Muni.Org/Departments/Parks/Documents/2012-10-15_Master%20plan.Pdf>.
  30. Canada’s Aquatic Environment. Cybernatural Software Group, N.D. Web. 14 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Aquatic.Uoguelph.Ca/Rivers/Fraser.Htm>.
  31. Fisheries And Oceans Canada. Fisheries And Oceans Canada, 2 May 2012. Web. 14 Sept. 2012 <Http://Www.Pac.Dfo-Mpo.Gc.Ca/Science/Habitat/Frw-Rfo/Index-Eng.Htm>.
  32. “Fraser Estuary, Lower Mainland, Vancouver, BC.” Britishcolumbia.Com. Shangaan Webservices, 1998. Web. 19 Sept. 2012.
  33. FREMP. Memoranda Of Understanding, 2001. Web. 25 Nov. 2012 <Http://Www.Bieapfremp.Org/Main_Fremp.Html>.
  34. Mckinnell, Stewart M., Et Al. “The Decline Of Fraser River Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus Nerka (Steller, 1743) In Relation To Marine Ecology.” Diss. Print.
  35. NOAA National Ocean Service Education. National Oceanic And Atmosphere Association, 18 July 2012. Web. 19 Sept. 2012. <Http://Oceanservice.Noaa.Gov/Education/Tutorial_Estuaries/>.
  36. “Russia’s Colony – The English And Captain Cook Step In.” Alaska History And Cultural Studies. Alaska Humanities Forum, 2012. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. <Http://Www.Akhistorycourse.Org/Articles/Article.Php?Artid=199>.
  37. Scott, Caren. “Onchorhynchus Tshawytscha Black Salmon.” Ed. William Fink. Animal Diversity Web. University Of Michigan Museum Of Zoology, N.D. Web. 31 Oct. 2012. <Http://Animaldiversity.Ummz.Umich.Edu/Accounts/Oncorhynchus_Tshawytscha/>.
  38. “Urban Issues.” Fraser River Action Plan. Environment Canada, N.D. Web. 19 Sept. 2012 <Http://Research.Rem.Sfu.Ca/Downloads/Frap/Urbane.Pdf>.

Leave a Reply

The Comprehensive Management of Chinook Salmon in Campbell Creek Estuary

The focal point of our efforts is the Campbell Creek Estuary in Anchorage, Alaska, and the Chinook salmon within it. Campbell Creek Estuary is an ecologically diverse area in which numerous natural processes occur and serve as a bio-filter for the more populated areas of Anchorage (Municipality of Anchorage 2010).

Scroll to top